Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer

Monday, November 27, 2017
Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer
Wooden Leg, of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, was born in 1858 in the area of the Black Hills and the Cheyenne River in Dakota Territory.

Wooden Leg Cheyenne Warior in 1913
See page for author [Public domain],
via Wikimedia Commons
Quick Facts:

His father was Many Bullet Wounds. He also went by the preferred name White Buffalo Shaking off the Dust. His birth date and death date are not known.

His mother was Eagle Feather on the Forehead. Her birth and death dates are also unknown.

His two older brothers were Strong Wind Blowing and the other's name was Yellow Hair. His younger brother was named Twin.

His older sister was named Crooked Nose and his younger sister was Fingers Woman.

As a child, Wooden Leg went by Eats from His Hand. He received the name Wooden Leg from his uncle. He received the name since he was able to walk farther than his peers when it came to long travels.

The first time that he saw white men involved in a large battle was the Wagon Box Fight of 1866. His older brother, Strong Wind Blowing, was killed in this battle during Red Cloud's War. Wooden Leg was too young to have taken part in the battle.

Wooden Leg became a part of the Elkhorn Scrapers some time in 1872. It is said that they were one (of three) warrior societies made up of Cheyenne and perhaps members from other tribes.

The morning of March 17, 1876 Wooden Leg was encamped at Powder River near modern-day Moorhead, Montana along with a few hundred of his own tribe, the Northern Cheyenne, and some Oglala Sioux. Around 9 in the morning, Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, with US soldiers under his command, carried out a surprise attack on the camp. The warriors were quick to get their women and children to safety. They also set up a defense to slow the US soldiers. The federal soldiers burned the village and their food supplies to effect federal policy, in an effort to cause tribes to move on to different lands. US forces also captured around 700 of the Cheyenne's horses. The tribes counterattack, which caused the army to retreat and leave most of the horses behind. The next morning, the Cheyenne took back the horses left behind, which was most of their previous 700 recovered, with little resistance from army soldiers still present. Despite this, their resources were devastated and members of both tribes, Cheyenne and Oglala,  men, women, and children, to the Oglala Sioux village of Crazy Horse. Relocating to the village, which was also along Powder River, took them three days of walking north. Many Cheyenne succumbed to the elements, freezing to death, while making their way to the village.

On June 17, 1876, Wooden Leg fought in the Battle of the Rosebud. Most of the cavalries from the Powder River attack were present at this battle. The allied tribes won this battle.

The morning of June 25, 1876, Wooden Leg and his older brother Yellow Hair were awakened by a warning about the arrival of US soldiers. The two of them quickly prepared for the battle alongside the rest of the warriors. It was a defeat for the US forces at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

In the latter months of 1876, General Crook held a force, at Cantonment Reno, further north up the Powder River. Indian scouts under his guidance, comprised mainly of Pawnee, Shoshone, and Sioux, discovered the Cheyenne camp near Little Bighorn River. The 4th U.S. Cavalry carried out an attack on Chief Morning Star's camp on November 25, 1876. Soldiers and scouts attacked the camp, killing many of the inhabitants and causing the rest to flee. Two individuals amongst those who fled were Wooden Leg and one of the Elk Horn Scrapers leaders, Little Wolf. The camp was burned by US soldiers and their food was taken by the soldiers.

After this attack, the Northern Cheyenne moved north, yet again, and met up with Oglala Sioux. Numerous tribes allied there and they moved on to the valley of Little Bighorn and then to the Tongue River. They were again involved in battle with the US forces at the Battle of Wolf Mountain.

Later in life, Wooden Leg, his brother Yellow Hair, and 34 Cheyenne refused to relocate to reservation land stayed in the region of the Tongue and Powder Rivers. Though much of the tribe did agree to relocate due to hunger. They stayed in the region until they too were experiencing hardship, mainly hunger, and moved on to the reservation. They settled at the White River Reservation.

Dull Knife and Little Wolf, along with a group they led, refused to obey unjust rules enforced by soldiers. They defied the forces and left the reservation, heading north to settle somewhere near the Tongue River. Wooden Leg refused to follow them and remained behind. Wooden Leg was then married to a Southern Cheyenne woman in 1878 and decided to meet up with Little Wolf at their camp, leaving the reservation.

In 1889, Wooden Leg joined up at Fort Keogh as a scout. Which he and other scouts guided US forces in the Ghost Dance campaign. Which would also lead to the Wounded Knee Massacre.

In 1906, he spoke about the Battle of Little Bighorn at the location where the battle took place. It was during a memorial for the battle.

In 1908, he was baptized on by a priest on the reservation.

In 1913, Wooden Leg, Two Moons, Black Wolf, and Little Wolf were a part of delegation headed to Washington to speak about the Cheyenne tribe, their experiences, and his experiences. He had also traveled to New York around this time. When he headed back to the reservation he became a judge on the reservation. He declined to become a chief of the Elkhorn Scrapers. Despite this, whites that he worked with called him a chief.

Wooden Leg did have two daughter but they died at a young age. He and his wife adopted a son from his sister. The boy was John White Wolf.

A lot of Wooden Leg's experiences prior to living on the reservation and his experiences at the Battle of Little Bighorn can be found in the book Wooden Leg: A Warrior Who Fought Custer. The book contains information told in interviews and conversations by Thomas B. Marquis, with Wooden Leg, in 1903. The book was first published in 1931 as a first person autobiography.

Wooden Leg lived until 1940, aged 81 or 82.

Learn More:

Full Book:

Language and Culture of Kauai

Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Language and Culture of Kauai
Hawaiian culture, like all cultures, is deeply complex and interesting. Hawaiian culture also varies on each of Hawaii's main, major islands. Hawaiian cultures are varied much like cultures all across the mainland United States. Accents, word pronunciations, and even the meanings of words, especially slang, can change depending on where you are. With many of the more secluded communities on Hawaii's islands, these cultural differences can be more noticeable (in a good way).

Kauai, Hawaii
Braden Jarvis
The Hawaiian island of Kauai is one island that has an amazing culture. Most of all, the culture of Kauai is mellow. The people of Kauai and very passionate about following long-held traditions. Of course, the more known traditions in Hawaii, such as hula and Hawaiian music, are important to Kauai. Music played using traditional Hawaiian musical instruments, like the ukulele and the pa'u, is popular during performances. Kauai was once the location of a culturally important hula school, One that was seen as the best across all of Hawaii. Yet, hula is still a major part of Kauai's culture as there are still numerous hula learning facilities. Though most are geared towards tourists. Kauai is still considered a center of Hawaiian culture to many and especially its residents. The communities across Kauai have a deep interest in, and dedication to, keeping their local culture, traditions, and skills alive.

Below is a short list of Hawaiian words as examples of the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian alphabet is currently comprised of 8 consonants: H, K, L, M, N, P, W, and ' ('okina) and 5 vowels: A, E, I, O, U

kahiko (traditional, old)
kahuna (priest, expert in a field)
kai (ocean, ocean water)
a hui hou (until we meet again)
aole (no)
ewa (westward)
kapu (tax, forbidden)
muumuu (long and loose fitting dress)
nani (beautiful)
nene (rare native goose)
kona (leeward, leeward wind)
koolau (windward side of island)

John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure

Wednesday, November 01, 2017
John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure
John Dolph was a historic figure in the local Akron tale of Ah-weh-hah. He was involved in events that took place in Akron. Which includes events at Murder Creek. From historical record, he had moved to Akron some time in the 1820s. He and his wife aided Ah-weh-hah in escaping from a white man, named Sanders, who wanted to force her into marrying him. The story unfortunately ends in tragedy.

John Dolph (Find A Grave link)  was the husband of Sarah Dolph. He was born in 1781 and died on June 30, 1834. He was born in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Sarah Dolph was born in 1783 in New Jersey and died February 11, 1861. From known cemetery records they had two daughters. In the book, The life of General Ely S. Parker, the story says that they had a son. The son was likely Reuben J. Dolph. They may have had another son named Arthur Dolph. These records are as such:

Reuben J. Dolph 1826 - February 11, 1889
Arthur Dolph 1819 - 1891
Mary Ann Dolph 1811 - August 26, 1850
Susan Dolph 1813 - 1829

You can find more Dolphs from cemetery records, in Erie County, on Find A Grave

Cover of Dream by Selena Gomez

Friday, October 13, 2017
Cover of Dream by Selena Gomez
Selena Gomez' cover of Dream at the SiriusXM Hits 1 Soundcheck. It's an incredible cover at that. The song was originally written and recorded by Priscilla Ahn in 2008. Here are performances of the song by Selena Gomez and the original by Priscilla Ahn.

Here's the original version of the song by Priscilla Ahn:

Chinese Traditions Involving Autumn and Other Seasons

Saturday, September 23, 2017
Chinese Traditions Involving Autumn and Other Seasons
The other day i was reading this excellent article titled A Chinese perspective on autumn over at EarthSky. I know little about Chinese cultures, ancient or modern, but they (as the article states) differ from the cultures of the western world, as they do not throw out old ideas to be replaced with new ones. They build onto old ideas and intelligently create deeper roots. That's not to say that there aren't subcultures in the western world that do this but, by and far, mainstream western culture does its best to wipe out old knowledge and unfortunately replaces it with the inferior knowledge of a fleeting nature. "Knowledge" that's based in entertainment media these days.

As for Chinese traditions, here's a short summary of part of the article linked above. Many of their traditions and observances are worth thinking about. Research your family history and find the equivalent meanings amongst the culture of your ancestry.

It is said that five seasons are observed by some in Chinese tradition. Spring being the rise, sprouting of life, summer being the igniting of the blooming of nature, late summer being the completeness of the blooms of the season, autumn being when nature begins to dry/wither and settle in, and winter is when nature is at rest. These five phases/five elements come with the understanding that the cycle always repeats and that it is a new beauty that is meant to be looked forward to.

In terms of emotion, summer is expectedly associated with joy.

Autumn is associated with courage and sadness as nature begins to wither and the days become shorter. These seasons tend to give some a sense of sadness. Perhaps it explains Seasonal Affective Disorder, with some, but that is another subject. Sadness is just seen as a natural reaction to the changing season.

autumn fall tree with leaves changing color

Here's how Chinese traditions observe the season and give it meaning. In Chinese tradition west is seen as the direction of autumn. Face west and think about your dreams, what you look to achieve, the visions of such things, and the path you look to be on in your life.

White is seen as the color of the autumn season. So you can light white candles, to light up the season, and/or place white flowers anywhere you choose in your room or around your home. Allow yourself, if need be, to express the emotions over what/who you've lost over the previous seasons. Allowing yourself to cry and release these emotions. According to tradition it is weeping that is the sound of the autumn season. And within it, after the tears have fallen, is where you permit yourself the courage to face the times, events, and what's ahead of you.

The realizations you reach, in understanding the seasons, is also a path that leads you towards understanding the cycle of life itself. Towards finding peace and handling life better. You can use these traditions to combine or find the equivalent of that of your ancestry or find the equivalent within your current beliefs. Be they Christian or otherwise. Nature is our connection, not the worship of nature itself, per se, but the recognition of its patterns and how it supports us whether we realize it or not. How it is a part of finding our own peace away from the worldly, the fleeting, material creations of humankind.

Witness Trees of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia

Sunday, September 03, 2017
Witness Trees of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia
Witness tree along Chinn Ridge loop trail
Witness Trees are trees that are old enough to have been alive and growing during the times when notable events in U.S. history have occurred. Those witness trees that had been around when the events of the Civil War occurred, and still living today, are over 150 years old. It is said that there are hundreds of Witness Trees at Manassas National Battlefield Park. Many of which are oak trees that can live for hundreds of years. Many of which, such as white oaks, can live beyond 500 years. To just imagine the events that occurred around that tree during the battles at Manassas or even just ordinary events before and after the war. Soldiers that sat in its shade or for defense during battle. Or the witnessing people that walked through the battlefield site, post-war, in the latter 1860s. Back when many artifacts from the war still existed. These trees would've even witnessed the early days of the park's founding in May of 1940. They've been around an incredible history.

As of 2017 there are at least ten witness trees that have been found and identified along the trails. All of which are marked by brown signs along the trails. The trees are found at these locations in the park:

One tree near Thornberry House, along Sudley Loop Trail
Three trees along the Unfinished Railroad Trail
Three trees along the Stuart's Hill Loop Trail
One tree along the Chinn Ridge Loop Trail
One tree along the Henry Hill Loop Trail
One tree along the Stone Bridge Loop Trail

In addition to the Witness Trees there are plenty of other notable sites along the trails and throughout the park. Visit the National Park Service site for the park and their Facebook page for updates about the park and upcoming events.

Tradescantia Pallida - Purple Heart Flower

Sunday, July 30, 2017
Tradescantia Pallida - Purple Heart Flower
Tradescantia Pallida
Tradescantia Pallida
By SKsiddhartthan (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Tradescantia pallida, commonly known as purple heart, (more) is a beautiful and versatile plant that is native to Mexico and Central America. It is a member of the Tradescantia family, which includes over 600 species of plants and it is perennial flower.

Purple heart is a trailing plant that can grow up to 2 feet long. The leaves are oval-shaped and pointed, and they are typically purple or green, but there are also variegated varieties available. The flowers are small and pink or purple, and they bloom in the summer.

Purple heart is a relatively easy plant to care for. It prefers full sun to partial shade and well-drained soil. It is drought-tolerant, but it will do best with regular watering. Purple heart can be propagated by cuttings or division.

Purple heart is a popular plant for use as a groundcover, hanging basket, or container plant. It is also a good choice for indoor plants.

Here are some additional things to know about purple heart:

- It is a fast-growing plant and can become invasive if not kept in check.
- It is deer-resistant.
- The leaves can be used to make a tea that has been used to treat a variety of ailments, including fever, sore throat, and intestinal issues

Growing Purple Heart

Purple heart is a relatively easy plant to grow. Here are some tips:

- Plant it in full sun to partial shade.
- Water it regularly, but do not overwater.
- Fertilize it monthly with a balanced fertilizer.
- Propagate it by cuttings or division in the spring or summer.
- Control its spread by pruning or mowing it back.

Purple Heart Care

Purple heart is a relatively low-maintenance plant, but there are a few things you can do to keep it healthy and thriving:

- Water regularly, especially during hot weather.
- Fertilize monthly with a balanced fertilizer.
- Pinch back the tips of the stems to encourage branching.
- Repot every few years as the plant grows.
- Protect from frost in cold winter areas.

Purple Heart Pests and Diseases

Purple heart is generally a pest- and disease-resistant plant. However, it can be susceptible to mealybugs, spider mites, and aphids. If you notice any pests, you can treat them with insecticidal soap or neem oil.

Purple Heart Uses

Purple heart is a versatile plant that can be used in a variety of ways. Here are a few ideas:

Groundcover: Purple heart is a great choice for groundcover in shady areas. It will spread quickly and form a lush mat of foliage.

Hanging basket: Purple heart is also a good choice for hanging baskets. The trailing stems will cascade over the edge of the basket, creating a beautiful display.

Container plant: Purple heart can also be grown in containers. It is a good choice for patios and decks, as it can tolerate some wind and sun exposure.

Houseplant: Purple heart can also be grown as a houseplant. It is a low-maintenance plant that can tolerate low light conditions.

Tradescantia Pallida. purple heart is a beautiful and versatile plant that is easy to care for. It is a great choice for gardeners of all levels of experience. If you are looking for a plant that will add color and interest to your home or garden, purple heart is a great option.

Gabrielle Aplin - Ghosts (BBC Introducing Maida Vale session)

Thursday, March 09, 2017
Gabrielle Aplin - Ghosts (BBC Introducing Maida Vale session)

Gabrielle Aplin performing Ghosts in 2011 for the BBC, BBC introducing, at their Maida Vale Studios. A beautiful song and a beautiful performance.

On Elon Musk, "Merger Of Biological Intelligence And Digital Intelligence"

Tuesday, February 14, 2017
On Elon Musk, "Merger Of Biological Intelligence And Digital Intelligence"
Elon Musk recently spoke at the World Government Summit in Dubai about the inevitable future of the combination of people and future technologies.


These will be technologies that'll be sold as an improvement of the human existence, sold as an enhancement of our individual traits and abilities. But will these future technologies truly achieve this? Or will it make us an extension of a market where we're sold even more products? We'll be marketed to with new, empty slogans and infomercial-style ad content about how to 'upgrade'. At what cost though? At what cost will these things come to us? Sure, there's the monetary cost but what about the cost of our spirit? The chipping away of our individuality, our spirit, our soul?

Technology, and being "connected", has had many negative effects as it is. Especially in terms of people disconnecting from one another and being attached to smart devices. Now imagine if the smart device is connected directly to us? Where the escapism is always there and the distraction doesn't even require the push of a button to dull everything out. What then? What place is left for us? What place is left for our humanity? Where will we begin and the cold electronic part of us end?

The "merger of biological intelligence and digital intelligence" will surely be a good money-maker for business, yes, but what about people? We'll practically be turned into objects, if we chose to, that believe in "upgrading" ourselves every few years. People who take a part in this will find themselves feeling no better than a smart device and the novelty will wear people down to feeling like nothing. The new feeling will wane and things'll begin to feel like a task, a hit, a fix, just to try and reach what once was felt. That is the nature of, a flaw of humans, that seek out escapism through a dulling out of humanity. The aftermath of such a thing may as well be the devastation of humanity itself.

I mean, we're already seeing the clear and present cracks in the digital world when we're indirectly connected to it. Imagine if we had an 'always on' connection and interacting with it has no requirement of actual typing out what you post, or chat, or write? There'd be little escape from this digital world and the endless stream would always be one, if you don't choose to disconnect. And what about those who refuse to become a part of this new 'connected' world? What new intolerances in societies will development due to these facts?

Future technologies like these, which are much closer than we think, are double-edged swords. When people finally become full engrossed in the digital world, what will be the effects on actual, face-to-face communication over time? What will become of compassion, physical contact, the feeling of present energy as people begin to interact less outside of digital realms? What will become our true, beyond the digital, connections as we pull apart? Perhaps even in our own homes. If anything, these things could become the decline of humanity's 'lifeforce', the lessening of our reasons to keep evolving spiritually, and a whole new type of doomsday.

'Snow Moon' Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of February 2017

Wednesday, February 08, 2017
'Snow Moon' Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of February 2017
On February 10th, the "snow moon" will be cast into shadow, due to a penumbral eclipse, and the whole eclipse will last (in stages) for about four hours. This eclipse won't be as dramatic as the total lunar eclipse that occurred on September 27th, 2015 but it should still be visibly noticeable. So it'll still be worth seeing depending on if the sky is clear in your region.

February 10 / February 11, 2017 - Penumbral Lunar Eclipse

The Mercantile - Polebridge, Montana

Thursday, February 02, 2017
The Mercantile - Polebridge, Montana
Polebridge, Montana is a small town of around 50 residents that is located a mile away from Glacier National Park. Polebridge is a town that's a throwback to simpler times without all of the modern distractions. There are no wireless networks to connect your devices to, there's no cell service, and the only connections to be made are with the town's residents and the visitors passing through. Most of the town does not have electricity and the buildings that do rely on green energy, mainly solar panels and batteries, and also generators. The 'popular' place in town is the Polebridge Mercantile, which offers up all sorts of baked goods and many other items. Outside of town there's adventure to be found in open nature as all other distractions are not available. If that's your thing, to explore, then a trip to Polebridge, Montana is a must. Perhaps you'll even find yourself never wanting to leave.

Watch this short 2013 documentary, The Mercantile, Directed by Brian Bolster

Photographer Dave Sandford captures Lake Erie during storms

Thursday, January 26, 2017
Photographer Dave Sandford captures Lake Erie during storms

Dave Sandford, a photographer from London, Ontario, Canada, has photographed many subjects over his nineteen years in the business. According to his website, he's done mostly sports photographer but his interest in photography started with photographing nature. Many of his photos can be found his official website and his Instagram account. You can also follow Dave Sandford on Twitter.

Other Photos of Lake Erie

The Story Of Painted Post, New York

Wednesday, January 25, 2017
The Story Of Painted Post, New York

Painted Post, New York

What's In A Name?

How does a town get a name of "Painted Post?"  There's an easy answer to that...and a longer story.  The quick answer is the town was named after a post placed there by Indians. The real reason why the post was placed is not exactly known. But one speculation is that is was painted in a color combination suitable for some primitive type of communications. What's also not know is when the original was put in place.

The naming of this community in Steuben County, adjacent to Corning, NY, goes back to the Colonial Days and the Revolutionary War.  At that time, white men visiting the area found, on this very site, (the small park at the Community Square) an oak wood post which was square to a height of four feet and then octagonal to the top.  The surface was painted red and decorated with black figures, about half without heads.  There were numerous references to this "painted post" by the early settlers who found several explanations from the Indians who put it there.  For some it was regarded as a memorial to a fallen chieftain, for others a marker for assemblies and, a "war post" around which dances were held.

That original post endowed this place with a name which will endure as long as recorded history. By 1808, the first namesake had disintegrated and a fitting substitute was put up.  Since then there have been several other replacements and time, wind, and weather have taken their toll.  The present monument goes back to about 1950.

The Indian with the bow waves a greeting to visitors at the Community Square in Painted Post today, which is in the heart of the downtown business district.  It's not far from a major industrial property where an Allegheny field service team was working. During a lunch break, the pictures you see here were taken.

Important Points:

- Painted Post got its name from a post placed by Indians, though the exact reason for its placement is unknown.
- The town is located in Steuben County, adjacent to Corning, NY, and its naming dates back to the Colonial Days and the Revolutionary War.
- The original post found on the site was made of oak wood and had a square base that transitioned into an octagonal shape at the top.
- The post's surface was painted red and decorated with black figures, some of which lacked heads.
- Early settlers referred to the post as the "painted post" and attributed various meanings to its purpose, such as a memorial to a fallen chieftain or a marker for assemblies and dances.
- The original post deteriorated by 1808, leading to the installation of a replacement. Subsequent replacements were made due to the effects of time, wind, and weather.
- The present monument at Painted Post dates back to around 1950.
- In the heart of the downtown business district of Painted Post, visitors can find the Community Square, where an Indian figure with a bow waves a greeting.
- The Community Square is located near a major industrial property where an Allegheny field service team was working, as depicted in the accompanying pictures.

Mugu Rock and Point Mugu, California

Tuesday, January 24, 2017
Mugu Rock and Point Mugu, California

Mugu Rock, in Ventura County, California, gets its name from the Chumash word for beach, Muwu. It is a prominent land feature in Point Mugu and took on its current formation during the creation of the Pacific Coast Highway, starting in 1937. Prior to that, a narrow road went around the rock and its erosion was the reason for new route that was cut through the ridge.

A Tour of Flintstones Bedrock City in Valle, Arizona

Monday, January 23, 2017
A Tour of Flintstones Bedrock City in Valle, Arizona

Fort Roberdeau - History of the Original Lead Mine Fort

Sunday, January 22, 2017
Fort Roberdeau - History of the Original Lead Mine Fort
From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, June 1973.

The location of the Fort is in the Sinking Valley region on the slope of Brush Mountain. The site is in an area of dense growth -- trees, shrubs, weeds -- recently removed by concerned citizens. Removal of the vegetation revealed a concrete foundation outlining the fort, poured between 1939-1941 for the purpose of reconstructing the site. Impetus for reconstruction was begun by concerned local agencies with National Youth Administration workers doing the physical labor. This was based upon the work of Donald A. Cadzow, State Archaeologist, who uncovered the original stone and brick foundation. The only remains above ground surface were the powder magazine walls of stone and brick and a square of masonry work, probably part of a smelting plant. Reconstruction efforts were discontinued in 1941 with the advent of World War II.

By Pubdog [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Few descriptions are available on the forts original appearance. The Columbian Magazine (September 1788) notes the erection of "a large fort of logs." Africa (1883) mentions the log fort upon which were mounted two small cannon, possessing a good armament, and manned by a regular garrison of 10-40 men. He also makes note of a smelting furnace. A sketch appearing in The Columbian Magazine of Fort Roberdeau (December 1788) shows a wall of what appears to be horizontal logs with a gate in the center and various out-buildings outside the wall. Craine (1941) notes the accompanying wording, "a timber fort, used for the same purpose as a blockhouse, but designed to accommodate a greater number of persons. Such a structure was generally made in the shape of a hollow square with various buildings and a watchtower within showing the line of loopholes at shoulder height." Craine notes that the stockade logs were horizontal rather than the customary vertical or up-right position because of the out-cropping of limestone which made it difficult to excavate deeply enough to place the logs in a vertical position.

The Fort site presently comprises 1.978 acres. The outline of the fort itself reveals a square structure with blockhouse-type protrusions on each of the four corners.

With the advent of the Revolutionary War, lead for the Continental Army became of great importance. Lead deposits were discovered in what was then the Sinking Spring Valley region, presently Sinking Valley, in Central Pennsylvania. General Daniel Roberdeau, a prominent Philadelphia merchant, an Associator, and a member of the Committee of Safety, was assigned the task of supervising mining operations in the area. Roberdeau, in order to house the miners of the area and to protect them from both Indians and Tories, erected the Fort in l777-l778 near the lead deposits in what is today Blair County. Eugene Craine, citing an original Roberdeau letter, states that he probably set up some kind of fort on an initial visit during 1777 and strengthened it on a second visit in 1778 by building a stockade.

The amount of lead derived from local mines is unknown. The enterprise was apparently abandoned by 1779 due to lack of assistance and expenses involved in mining operations. However, The Columbian Magazine (September, 1788) notes that the miners were from the old country, unused to the frontier life, and that the "whole undertaking fell to the ground." The Fort nevertheless remained standing even after its abandonment by garrison troops and continued to serve as a refuge for the local settlers. Craine notes that the Fort was occupied at least through 1781.

Fort Roberdeau was one of five frontier forts in Blair County in the 1777-1778 time-period. However, the other four were built by private enterprise, of the block-house type. Fort Roberdeau, commonly known as the Lead Mine Fort, appears to have been the only fort in Blair county built and manned by soldiers of the Continental Army.

Bibliographical References
Africa, J. Simpson, History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties,
   Pennsylvania, "Blair County," (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883).
The Columbian Magazine, September and December, 1788, (Philadelphia: W. Spotswood).
Craine, Eugene R., The Story of Fort Roberdeau, 1777 to 1783,
    (Altoona: The Tourist & Publicity Bureau of the Chamber of Commerce, The City of Altoona,  1941).
Davis, Tarring S., ed., A History of Blair County, Pennsylvania, Vol. 1,
    (Harrisburg: National Historical Association, Inc., 1931).
Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, Vol. 1, (Clarence M. Busch, State Printer, 1896).

Fort Roberdeau; Lead Mine Fort, The

The Internet is in Bad Need of a Soul

Friday, January 13, 2017
The Internet is in Bad Need of a Soul
Look at your world, what is your life?

Hour after hour you spend time scrolling screens. You're on your computer scrolling through Facebook. You're on your smartphone or tablet doing the same. You're posting updates about your life to social media. Maybe you spend time streaming random moments of your life to people on the internet. All of which are actions of trying to make a connection to people. When out public you, more than you realize, never look up to make true eye contact with anyone.

Yet, the more social "reach" you get, the less of a connection you feel. Things begin to reveal and you find that none of this is real. It's just not the same as a true connection. There is no soul, no energy, behind these interactions. The internet is a black hole that takes everything in. And what it sends back out is cold data. It is not streaming consciousness. There is no emotion in the data.

Now, don't get me wrong, that's not to say that people can't make meaningful friendships and relationships over the internet, but there's going to be the need real, regular meet ups in the real world. Daily Skype conversations will never be enough. Private messaging, instant messaging, and texting will never be enough. It's as real as that. Your ties to people have to be real, sooner or later, as we're a social species and we crave interaction.

This sentiment is best defined by the quote by Kristen Stewart's character in the film Anesthesia:

"Everyone is plugged in, blindingly inarticulate, obsessed with money, their careers. Stupidly, arrogantly content. I can’t talk to them, I fight them, I want to destroy them even. I crave interaction, I crave it. But you just can’t anymore. They pull their devices out for every little thing. To reinforce their petty, convenient notions, to decide where they’re gonna shop, what they’re gonna eat, what movies they’re going to watch. Everything they ingest."

While blunt, it hits right at the core of the problem of the digital and how it fits into the rest of the "culture" of contentment. People, instead of staring into the world for discovery and interaction, they instead pull out their smartphones and other electronics to discover these things. They're completely pulled into a flat screen and it has become a large substitute for tasks that were once done with true interaction. Again, these interactions are pulled into the black hole that is the internet. You're staring into an abyss. They're victims of false hopes and it's not their fault. Trust me, i've been pulled into this system too.

Sucked in by a black hole

Think about it, you may too easily be getting yourself stuck into a pattern slowly tearing you down. And if your home situation isn't all that great then it can be even worse. You try and find a connection with people online for support and perhaps catch feelings, there's nothing wrong with that, but you need to understand that video chats and streams are never going to be enough. If you want a true change, you're going to have to go beyond. You're going to have to go beyond the fears that this society has programmed into us. The fears of getting out there. If you know someone across the country that you want to meet, arrange to do so. Even if you're nervous. Because, most likely, the other person is just as nervous. The two of you, or crowd or whoever, can meet up in a busy public place to make those initial connections in the true world, instead of the digital one.

If you want to escape the environment you're in, especially a poor environment, then do everything in your power to fight for an escape. Reach out to people in your local community for help. The helpers are everywhere and can be found in the most unlikely of people. With declining communities and declining society, such as here in the USA, these real connections are going to be more important than ever. You're going to need to have people to trust and people to trust in you. They're going to have to be reliable people. Restore the structure, the community that has quickly become replaced by technology. And get people to go outside.

Technology is a thing that is meant to be a tool and not the structure itself. Remember that. Know that. Use it intelligently to reach out to people. But don't let it be only the beginning and end of your interactions. Always reach beyond and get to know these digital people outside the screens. Don't get stuck in a pattern of accepting the mundane. Live.


If you see people who need help online, make an effort to actually get them help. Discussions and listening to them are good. But we need to do more. More needs to be done. Don't approach these things in a manner of talking @ someone.

Talk to them, talk with them. Don't expect something from anything and go into online conversations with people in need, or with anyone, with selfish thoughts in mind. Make the interactions real. Social media has guided our mindsets into holding things back, things of emotion, and sometimes even doing things for self-promotion. Avoid this at all costs. Let your communications with people be real, with emotion, and true. Put life into the internet. Abandon public personas on social media and be your true self. Distance yourself from public social media and make it a secondary thing. Make your online communications more personal and stop striving to talk to as many people as you can. It dilutes your meaning, yourself, and your ability to get to know people.

Katelyn Nicole Davis ? Forever Missed