November 2017

Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer

Monday, November 27, 2017
Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer
Wooden Leg, of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, was born in 1858 in the area of the Black Hills and the Cheyenne River in Dakota Territory.

Wooden Leg Cheyenne Warior in 1913
See page for author [Public domain],
via Wikimedia Commons
Quick Facts:

His father was Many Bullet Wounds. He also went by the preferred name White Buffalo Shaking off the Dust. His birth date and death date are not known.

His mother was Eagle Feather on the Forehead. Her birth and death dates are also unknown.

His two older brothers were Strong Wind Blowing and the other's name was Yellow Hair. His younger brother was named Twin.

His older sister was named Crooked Nose and his younger sister was Fingers Woman.

As a child, Wooden Leg went by Eats from His Hand. He received the name Wooden Leg from his uncle. He received the name since he was able to walk farther than his peers when it came to long travels.

The first time that he saw white men involved in a large battle was the Wagon Box Fight of 1866. His older brother, Strong Wind Blowing, was killed in this battle during Red Cloud's War. Wooden Leg was too young to have taken part in the battle.

Wooden Leg became a part of the Elkhorn Scrapers some time in 1872. It is said that they were one (of three) warrior societies made up of Cheyenne and perhaps members from other tribes.

The morning of March 17, 1876 Wooden Leg was encamped at Powder River near modern-day Moorhead, Montana along with a few hundred of his own tribe, the Northern Cheyenne, and some Oglala Sioux. Around 9 in the morning, Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, with US soldiers under his command, carried out a surprise attack on the camp. The warriors were quick to get their women and children to safety. They also set up a defense to slow the US soldiers. The federal soldiers burned the village and their food supplies to effect federal policy, in an effort to cause tribes to move on to different lands. US forces also captured around 700 of the Cheyenne's horses. The tribes counterattack, which caused the army to retreat and leave most of the horses behind. The next morning, the Cheyenne took back the horses left behind, which was most of their previous 700 recovered, with little resistance from army soldiers still present. Despite this, their resources were devastated and members of both tribes, Cheyenne and Oglala,  men, women, and children, to the Oglala Sioux village of Crazy Horse. Relocating to the village, which was also along Powder River, took them three days of walking north. Many Cheyenne succumbed to the elements, freezing to death, while making their way to the village.

On June 17, 1876, Wooden Leg fought in the Battle of the Rosebud. Most of the cavalries from the Powder River attack were present at this battle. The allied tribes won this battle.

The morning of June 25, 1876, Wooden Leg and his older brother Yellow Hair were awakened by a warning about the arrival of US soldiers. The two of them quickly prepared for the battle alongside the rest of the warriors. It was a defeat for the US forces at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

In the latter months of 1876, General Crook held a force, at Cantonment Reno, further north up the Powder River. Indian scouts under his guidance, comprised mainly of Pawnee, Shoshone, and Sioux, discovered the Cheyenne camp near Little Bighorn River. The 4th U.S. Cavalry carried out an attack on Chief Morning Star's camp on November 25, 1876. Soldiers and scouts attacked the camp, killing many of the inhabitants and causing the rest to flee. Two individuals amongst those who fled were Wooden Leg and one of the Elk Horn Scrapers leaders, Little Wolf. The camp was burned by US soldiers and their food was taken by the soldiers.

After this attack, the Northern Cheyenne moved north, yet again, and met up with Oglala Sioux. Numerous tribes allied there and they moved on to the valley of Little Bighorn and then to the Tongue River. They were again involved in battle with the US forces at the Battle of Wolf Mountain.

Later in life, Wooden Leg, his brother Yellow Hair, and 34 Cheyenne refused to relocate to reservation land stayed in the region of the Tongue and Powder Rivers. Though much of the tribe did agree to relocate due to hunger. They stayed in the region until they too were experiencing hardship, mainly hunger, and moved on to the reservation. They settled at the White River Reservation.

Dull Knife and Little Wolf, along with a group they led, refused to obey unjust rules enforced by soldiers. They defied the forces and left the reservation, heading north to settle somewhere near the Tongue River. Wooden Leg refused to follow them and remained behind. Wooden Leg was then married to a Southern Cheyenne woman in 1878 and decided to meet up with Little Wolf at their camp, leaving the reservation.

In 1889, Wooden Leg joined up at Fort Keogh as a scout. Which he and other scouts guided US forces in the Ghost Dance campaign. Which would also lead to the Wounded Knee Massacre.

In 1906, he spoke about the Battle of Little Bighorn at the location where the battle took place. It was during a memorial for the battle.

In 1908, he was baptized on by a priest on the reservation.

In 1913, Wooden Leg, Two Moons, Black Wolf, and Little Wolf were a part of delegation headed to Washington to speak about the Cheyenne tribe, their experiences, and his experiences. He had also traveled to New York around this time. When he headed back to the reservation he became a judge on the reservation. He declined to become a chief of the Elkhorn Scrapers. Despite this, whites that he worked with called him a chief.

Wooden Leg did have two daughter but they died at a young age. He and his wife adopted a son from his sister. The boy was John White Wolf.

A lot of Wooden Leg's experiences prior to living on the reservation and his experiences at the Battle of Little Bighorn can be found in the book Wooden Leg: A Warrior Who Fought Custer. The book contains information told in interviews and conversations by Thomas B. Marquis, with Wooden Leg, in 1903. The book was first published in 1931 as a first person autobiography.

Wooden Leg lived until 1940, aged 81 or 82.

Learn More:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wooden_Leg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wooden_Leg:_A_Warrior_Who_Fought_Custer

Full Book:
https://archive.org/details/warriorwhofought027166mbp

Language and Culture of Kauai

Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Language and Culture of Kauai
Hawaiian culture, like all cultures, is deeply complex and interesting. Hawaiian culture also varies on each of Hawaii's main, major islands. Hawaiian cultures are varied much like cultures all across the mainland United States. Accents, word pronunciations, and even the meanings of words, especially slang, can change depending on where you are. With many of the more secluded communities on Hawaii's islands, these cultural differences can be more noticeable (in a good way).

Kauai, Hawaii
Braden Jarvis
The Hawaiian island of Kauai is one island that has an amazing culture. Most of all, the culture of Kauai is mellow. The people of Kauai and very passionate about following long-held traditions. Of course, the more known traditions in Hawaii, such as hula and Hawaiian music, are important to Kauai. Music played using traditional Hawaiian musical instruments, like the ukulele and the pa'u, is popular during performances. Kauai was once the location of a culturally important hula school, One that was seen as the best across all of Hawaii. Yet, hula is still a major part of Kauai's culture as there are still numerous hula learning facilities. Though most are geared towards tourists. Kauai is still considered a center of Hawaiian culture to many and especially its residents. The communities across Kauai have a deep interest in, and dedication to, keeping their local culture, traditions, and skills alive.

Below is a short list of Hawaiian words as examples of the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian alphabet is currently comprised of 8 consonants: H, K, L, M, N, P, W, and ' ('okina) and 5 vowels: A, E, I, O, U

kahiko (traditional, old)
kahuna (priest, expert in a field)
kai (ocean, ocean water)
a hui hou (until we meet again)
aole (no)
ewa (westward)
kapu (tax, forbidden)
muumuu (long and loose fitting dress)
nani (beautiful)
nene (rare native goose)
kona (leeward, leeward wind)
koolau (windward side of island)



John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure

Wednesday, November 01, 2017
John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure
John Dolph was a historic figure in the local Akron tale of Ah-weh-hah. He was involved in events that took place in Akron. Which includes events at Murder Creek. From historical record, he had moved to Akron some time in the 1820s. He and his wife aided Ah-weh-hah in escaping from a white man, named Sanders, who wanted to force her into marrying him. The story unfortunately ends in tragedy.

John Dolph (Find A Grave link)  was the husband of Sarah Dolph. He was born in 1781 and died on June 30, 1834. He was born in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Sarah Dolph was born in 1783 in New Jersey and died February 11, 1861. From known cemetery records they had two daughters. In the book, The life of General Ely S. Parker, the story says that they had a son. The son was likely Reuben J. Dolph. They may have had another son named Arthur Dolph. These records are as such:

Reuben J. Dolph 1826 - February 11, 1889
Arthur Dolph 1819 - 1891
Mary Ann Dolph 1811 - August 26, 1850
Susan Dolph 1813 - 1829

You can find more Dolphs from cemetery records, in Erie County, on Find A Grave