2017

December 2, 2017

Oscillating Ceramic Heater - Lasko 6435 Designer Series

December 02, 2017
Oscillating Ceramic Heater - Lasko 6435 Designer Series
An oscillating ceramic heater isn't all that different from a regular ceramic heater. The difference being, which is nearly self-explanatory, is that an oscillating ceramic heater moves to help circulate the heat. A ceramic heater uses ceramic elements and aluminum. The aluminum heats up and and air blowing across the fixtures inside the heater. In comparison to coil heaters, they heat up more quickly, cool down more quickly when the heater is powered off, and are more energy efficient. They're also safer than coil heaters. They naturally do not reach as high of a temperature due to the ceramic inside the heaters.

Lasko's 6435 model is a highly-rated and popular model. It is perfect for small, medium, and even some large rooms. Larger rooms may require more than heater. It is also definitely suited for heating the average bedroom. The oscillating feature is a big plus.

Get more information and Buy Now on Amazon >>

Lasko 6435 Designer Series oscillating ceramic heater
Quiet and Energy Efficient.

The internal fan on Lasko's 6436 Oscillating Ceramic Heater is very quiet and the heating fixtures are very energy efficient. The ceramic heating elements retain heat well while not heating up too much and wasting energy. Then fan and oscillating movement helps spread the heat, automatic, variable convection, instead of it all blowing in one direction.

Comes with a Remote

The remote includes a power button, timer button, high/low/auto (thermostat-controlled) heating button,  an oscillation button, and temperature adjustment (+/-) buttons. All of these buttons are also available on the heater itself.

Features and Details:

The Lasko 6436 Oscillating Ceramic Heater features a base with a metal scrollwork design.

* High, low, automatic settings for the thermostat, +/- temperature adjustment settings, oscillation setting, and timer settings.

* 1500 watts for excellent heat output.

* 3-Year limited warranty when purchased new.

Get more information, read customer reviews, and Buy Now on Amazon >>

November 27, 2017

Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer

November 27, 2017
Wooden Leg - Cheyenne Warrior Who Fought Custer
Wooden Leg, of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe, was born in 1858 in the area of the Black Hills and the Cheyenne River in Dakota Territory.

Wooden Leg Cheyenne Warior in 1913
See page for author [Public domain],
via Wikimedia Commons
Quick Facts:

His father was Many Bullet Wounds. He also went by the preferred name White Buffalo Shaking off the Dust. His birth date and death date are not known.

His mother was Eagle Feather on the Forehead. Her birth and death dates are also unknown.

His two older brothers were Strong Wind Blowing and the other's name was Yellow Hair. His younger brother was named Twin.

His older sister was named Crooked Nose and his younger sister was Fingers Woman.

As a child, Wooden Leg went by Eats from His Hand. He received the name Wooden Leg from his uncle. He received the name since he was able to walk farther than his peers when it came to long travels.

The first time that he saw white men involved in a large battle was the Wagon Box Fight of 1866. His older brother, Strong Wind Blowing, was killed in this battle during Red Cloud's War. Wooden Leg was too young to have taken part in the battle.

Wooden Leg became a part of the Elkhorn Scrapers some time in 1872. It is said that they were one (of three) warrior societies made up of Cheyenne and perhaps members from other tribes.

The morning of March 17, 1876 Wooden Leg was encamped at Powder River near modern-day Moorhead, Montana along with a few hundred of his own tribe, the Northern Cheyenne, and some Oglala Sioux. Around 9 in the morning, Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, with US soldiers under his command, carried out a surprise attack on the camp. The warriors were quick to get their women and children to safety. They also set up a defense to slow the US soldiers. The federal soldiers burned the village and their food supplies to effect federal policy, in an effort to cause tribes to move on to different lands. US forces also captured around 700 of the Cheyenne's horses. The tribes counterattack, which caused the army to retreat and leave most of the horses behind. The next morning, the Cheyenne took back the horses left behind, which was most of their previous 700 recovered, with little resistance from army soldiers still present. Despite this, their resources were devastated and members of both tribes, Cheyenne and Oglala,  men, women, and children, to the Oglala Sioux village of Crazy Horse. Relocating to the village, which was also along Powder River, took them three days of walking north. Many Cheyenne succumbed to the elements, freezing to death, while making their way to the village.

On June 17, 1876, Wooden Leg fought in the Battle of the Rosebud. Most of the cavalries from the Powder River attack were present at this battle. The allied tribes won this battle.

The morning of June 25, 1876, Wooden Leg and his older brother Yellow Hair were awakened by a warning about the arrival of US soldiers. The two of them quickly prepared for the battle alongside the rest of the warriors. It was a defeat for the US forces at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

In the latter months of 1876, General Crook held a force, at Cantonment Reno, further north up the Powder River. Indian scouts under his guidance, comprised mainly of Pawnee, Shoshone, and Sioux, discovered the Cheyenne camp near Little Bighorn River. The 4th U.S. Cavalry carried out an attack on Chief Morning Star's camp on November 25, 1876. Soldiers and scouts attacked the camp, killing many of the inhabitants and causing the rest to flee. Two individuals amongst those who fled were Wooden Leg and one of the Elk Horn Scrapers leaders, Little Wolf. The camp was burned by US soldiers and their food was taken by the soldiers.

After this attack, the Northern Cheyenne moved north, yet again, and met up with Oglala Sioux. Numerous tribes allied there and they moved on to the valley of Little Bighorn and then to the Tongue River. They were again involved in battle with the US forces at the Battle of Wolf Mountain.

Later in life, Wooden Leg, his brother Yellow Hair, and 34 Cheyenne refused to relocate to reservation land stayed in the region of the Tongue and Powder Rivers. Though much of the tribe did agree to relocate due to hunger. They stayed in the region until they too were experiencing hardship, mainly hunger, and moved on to the reservation. They settled at the White River Reservation.

Dull Knife and Little Wolf, along with a group they led, refused to obey unjust rules enforced by soldiers. They defied the forces and left the reservation, heading north to settle somewhere near the Tongue River. Wooden Leg refused to follow them and remained behind. Wooden Leg was then married to a Southern Cheyenne woman in 1878 and decided to meet up with Little Wolf at their camp, leaving the reservation.

In 1889, Wooden Leg joined up at Fort Keogh as a scout. Which he and other scouts guided US forces in the Ghost Dance campaign. Which would also lead to the Wounded Knee Massacre.

In 1906, he spoke about the Battle of Little Bighorn at the location where the battle took place. It was during a memorial for the battle.

In 1908, he was baptized on by a priest on the reservation.

In 1913, Wooden Leg, Two Moons, Black Wolf, and Little Wolf were a part of delegation headed to Washington to speak about the Cheyenne tribe, their experiences, and his experiences. He had also traveled to New York around this time. When he headed back to the reservation he became a judge on the reservation. He declined to become a chief of the Elkhorn Scrapers. Despite this, whites that he worked with called him a chief.

Wooden Leg did have two daughter but they died at a young age. He and his wife adopted a son from his sister. The boy was John White Wolf.

A lot of Wooden Leg's experiences prior to living on the reservation and his experiences at the Battle of Little Bighorn can be found in the book Wooden Leg: A Warrior Who Fought Custer. The book contains information told in interviews and conversations by Thomas B. Marquis, with Wooden Leg, in 1903. The book was first published in 1931 as a first person autobiography.

Wooden Leg lived until 1940, aged 81 or 82.

Learn More:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wooden_Leg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wooden_Leg:_A_Warrior_Who_Fought_Custer

Full Book:
https://archive.org/details/warriorwhofought027166mbp

November 15, 2017

Language and Culture of Kauai

November 15, 2017
Language and Culture of Kauai
Hawaiian culture, like all cultures, is deeply complex and interesting. Hawaiian culture also varies on each of Hawaii's main, major islands. Hawaiian cultures are varied much like cultures all across the mainland United States. Accents, word pronunciations, and even the meanings of words, especially slang, can change depending on where you are. With many of the more secluded communities on Hawaii's islands, these cultural differences can be more noticeable (in a good way).

Kauai, Hawaii
Braden Jarvis
The Hawaiian island of Kauai is one island that has an amazing culture. Most of all, the culture of Kauai is mellow. The people of Kauai and very passionate about following long-held traditions. Of course, the more known traditions in Hawaii, such as hula and Hawaiian music, are important to Kauai. Music played using traditional Hawaiian musical instruments, like the ukulele and the pa'u, is popular during performances. Kauai was once the location of a culturally important hula school, One that was seen as the best across all of Hawaii. Yet, hula is still a major part of Kauai's culture as there are still numerous hula learning facilities. Though most are geared towards tourists. Kauai is still considered a center of Hawaiian culture to many and especially its residents. The communities across Kauai have a deep interest in, and dedication to, keeping their local culture, traditions, and skills alive.

Below is a short list of Hawaiian words as examples of the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian alphabet is currently comprised of 8 consonants: H, K, L, M, N, P, W, and ' ('okina) and 5 vowels: A, E, I, O, U

kahiko (traditional, old)
kahuna (priest, expert in a field)
kai (ocean, ocean water)
a hui hou (until we meet again)
aole (no)
ewa (westward)
kapu (tax, forbidden)
muumuu (long and loose fitting dress)
nani (beautiful)
nene (rare native goose)
kona (leeward, leeward wind)
koolau (windward side of island)


November 14, 2017

Ceramic Heat Emitters

November 14, 2017
Ceramic Heat Emitters

Ceramic Heat Emitters

Ceramic Heat EmitterA ceramic heat emitter is useful for many purposes from keeping animal habitats warm, for usage in saunas, and salons. Though they're also useful in plenty of other situations such as drying materials. Ceramic heat emitters are extremely useful and are very affordable items. For their price, they also can last for years when cared for properly and not damaged. They certainly last much longer than infrared bulbs. See a few selections of excellent Ceramic Heat Emitters at the bottom of this article.

Manufacturers of quality ceramic heat emitters include BYB, Aiicioo, Zacro, Pecute, SIye, and many more. All of which are similarly priced.

Price Ranges: They typical cost between 10 to 20 dollars depending on wattage, brand, and how many are included in a pack.

Longevity: Anywhere from 10,000 to 25,000 hours.

If used for animals, a 100 watt ceramic heat emitter of 100 watts is best used in a 30-40 gallon tank and 150 watts for a 50-100 gallon tank. Though it is best to check these numbers from multiple sources to keep your pet safe and to help you choose the right heat emitter for your needs. Just to be on the safe side. Some of these recommendations can be found in the Q&A sections of the product links. It is also best to read all included instructions and guidelines that come with the heat emitter. This is to avoid harming your pets or avoiding creating fire hazards. Keeping track of the temperature, within a safe range, within an enclosure is a must. Also take care not to burn yourself on the heat emitter.

Highly rated and quality ceramic heat emitters. Including detailed reviews by satisfied customers.

November 1, 2017

John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure

November 01, 2017
John Dolph - Akron, New York Historical Figure
John Dolph was a historic figure in the local Akron tale of Ah-weh-hah. He was involved in events that took place in Akron. Which includes events at Murder Creek. From historical record, he had moved to Akron some time in the 1820s. He and his wife aided Ah-weh-hah in escaping from a white man, named Sanders, who wanted to force her into marrying him. The story unfortunately ends in tragedy.

John Dolph (Find A Grave link)  was the husband of Sarah Dolph. He was born in 1781 and died on June 30, 1834. He was born in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Sarah Dolph was born in 1783 in New Jersey and died February 11, 1861. From known cemetery records they had two daughters. In the book, The life of General Ely S. Parker, the story says that they had a son. The son was likely Reuben J. Dolph. They may have had another son named Arthur Dolph. These records are as such:

Reuben J. Dolph 1826 - February 11, 1889
Arthur Dolph 1819 - 1891
Mary Ann Dolph 1811 - August 26, 1850
Susan Dolph 1813 - 1829

You can find more Dolphs from cemetery records, in Erie County, on Find A Grave

October 18, 2017

Hallee Hirsh-Martin - halleeonearth - French Broad, Appalachians Photo

October 18, 2017
Hallee Hirsh-Martin - halleeonearth - French Broad, Appalachians Photo
As someone who lives in one of the regions of the Appalachians, although in a different state from where there this picture is take, i can tell you that their sight can be breathtaking. We have a similarly-sized river in my area, though i don't believe it's nearly as old, which is beautiful on a foggy morning. We've been getting a lot of foggy mornings this year. Mornings where the fog reaches almost to the heights of the mountains

Anyways, on to this photo posted by Hallee Hirsh-Martin on her Instagram is absolutely beautiful. The photo was taken along the French Broad River in North Carolina. From what she posts she's definitely an incredible person with an incredible family. Living a life that i do hope to live, in time. A simplified life. If you're looking for someone to inspire you then definitely follow her Instagram. For real, I consider her account amongst the top accounts on Instagram. This photo of her standing by the river, watching the water and fog roll by, just exudes peace. Impermanence


October 13, 2017

Cover of Dream by Selena Gomez

October 13, 2017
Cover of Dream by Selena Gomez
Selena Gomez' cover of Dream at the SiriusXM Hits 1 Soundcheck. It's an incredible cover at that. The song was originally written and recorded by Priscilla Ahn in 2008. Here are performances of the song by Selena Gomez and the original by Priscilla Ahn.



Here's the original version of the song by Priscilla Ahn:

October 7, 2017

Canyon de Chelly National Monument

October 07, 2017
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Canyon de Chelly panorama of valley from mountain
Ansel Adams [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Canyon de Chelly is a well known national monument and is one of the most popular in the United States. Despite its popularity, many citizens here in the USA have never even heard of the location nor even recognize its beautiful sights.

The earliest occupants of Canyon de Chelly were the Anasazi when they started building the structures some time around 300 A.D. After the Anasazi came the Navajo who still inhabit the region today.

The region of Canyon de Chelly is comprised of three canyons. Which includes Monument Canyon and Canyon del Muerto. The astounding beauty of the canyons and landscape is like standing in the middle of natural cathedral. There are plenty of beautiful sights and overlooks to be seen at these canyons in Chinle, Arizona. To see them, there are paved paths for vehicles. While other paths are more off-road. There are also guided tours by horse or Jeep. Along with choices of what 'tours' you want to take during your visit(s).

You can learn more about the canyon from this Canyon de Chelly National Monument book from 1997 or, if you're planning to visit, at https://www.nps.gov/cach/index.htm

Canyon de Chelly First Ruin 2006 09 07
Andreas F. Borchert [CC BY-SA 3.0 de,
CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0
or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

September 23, 2017

Chinese Traditions Involving Autumn and Other Seasons

September 23, 2017
Chinese Traditions Involving Autumn and Other Seasons
The other day i was reading this excellent article titled A Chinese perspective on autumn over at EarthSky. I know little about Chinese cultures, ancient or modern, but they (as the article states) differ from the cultures of the western world, as they do not throw out old ideas to be replaced with new ones. They build onto old ideas and intelligently create deeper roots. That's not to say that there aren't subcultures in the western world that do this but, by and far, mainstream western culture does its best to wipe out old knowledge and unfortunately replaces it with the inferior knowledge of a fleeting nature. "Knowledge" that's based in entertainment media these days.

As for Chinese traditions, here's a short summary of part of the article linked above. Many of their traditions and observances are worth thinking about. Research your family history and find the equivalent meanings amongst the culture of your ancestry.

It is said that five seasons are observed by some in Chinese tradition. Spring being the rise, sprouting of life, summer being the igniting of the blooming of nature, late summer being the completeness of the blooms of the season, autumn being when nature begins to dry/wither and settle in, and winter is when nature is at rest. These five phases/five elements come with the understanding that the cycle always repeats and that it is a new beauty that is meant to be looked forward to.

In terms of emotion, summer is expectedly associated with joy.

Autumn is associated with courage and sadness as nature begins to wither and the days become shorter. These seasons tend to give some a sense of sadness. Perhaps it explains Seasonal Affective Disorder, with some, but that is another subject. Sadness is just seen as a natural reaction to the changing season.

autumn fall tree with leaves changing color

Here's how Chinese traditions observe the season and give it meaning. In Chinese tradition west is seen as the direction of autumn. Face west and think about your dreams, what you look to achieve, the visions of such things, and the path you look to be on in your life.

White is seen as the color of the autumn season. So you can light white candles, to light up the season, and/or place white flowers anywhere you choose in your room or around your home. Allow yourself, if need be, to express the emotions over what/who you've lost over the previous seasons. Allowing yourself to cry and release these emotions. According to tradition it is weeping that is the sound of the autumn season. And within it, after the tears have fallen, is where you permit yourself the courage to face the times, events, and what's ahead of you.

The realizations you reach, in understanding the seasons, is also a path that leads you towards understanding the cycle of life itself. Towards finding peace and handling life better. You can use these traditions to combine or find the equivalent of that of your ancestry or find the equivalent within your current beliefs. Be they Christian or otherwise. Nature is our connection, not the worship of nature itself, per se, but the recognition of its patterns and how it supports us whether we realize it or not. How it is a part of finding our own peace away from the worldly, the fleeting, material creations of humankind.


September 16, 2017

Braun KF7150BK Coffee Maker

September 16, 2017
Braun KF7150BK Coffee Maker
We've all been there with the low-priced coffee makers. Used to the flavor of the coffee they brew without realizing that our coffee could be better (and stronger with better brewing). While the low-priced brand models are great you are likely missing out on richer and more flavorful coffee with a higher-end coffee maker. The Braun coffee maker is one such coffee maker.

Features:

From the start this Braun coffee maker (Braun KF7150BK) doesn't look too much different from others in its price range.   For one its cone filter gives, in my opinion, a much more flavorful and richer coffee.

The operation of the coffee maker is as simple as any other coffee maker. The display on the coffee maker, being backlit, is easier to read than the regular LCD displays on other coffee makers. The buttons are also easy to read.

You can choose how many cups you want to brew. Up to four cups of coffee at a time. Like most coffee makers you can also set a timer for it to start automatically brewing at a certain time of day. It also features an auto shutoff setting.

With the hot plate you can keep your coffee warm by choosing either high, medium, or low. Which is better than ordinary coffee makers that only have one temperature that keeps the coffee very hot and can change it's flavor. For my tastes i set the hot plate to medium.

On top of temperature settings, you can also set the strength of the coffee to either regular or bold.


Cons

Now for some of the minor cons for this coffee maker. The water reservoir is located in a less-than-convenient location for some. If you have low cupboards then you'll have to move the coffee maker to access the water reservoir. Though many coffee makers are designed the same way with the reservoir under the lid. Some also have problem with the size of the reservoir opening.

Pricing

On pricing, you can get free shipping for this coffee maker if you buy it through Amazon here and perhaps even more savings down the road.

Similar Coffee Makers

There are plenty of similar coffee makers available. Most of which are just as highly rated as the Braun coffee makers. While i won't be going over their features, pros, and cons you can see these brands and models by clicking here

My opinion is that the Braun BrewSense coffee maker is definitely worth the purchase if you're in the market for a reliable, higher-end coffee maker. I feel the customer opinions and ratings alone speak well of it, its quality, and brewing quality. With free shipping it makes it all the more worth purchasing.

September 14, 2017

On Realness: Selena Gomez

September 14, 2017
On Realness: Selena Gomez
I don't often write about "celebrities" (maybe i should more often, i'm not really a commentator) and i apologize for this post being a little all over the place. After reading about Selena Gomez and her kidney transplant, it does go to show that they are people just like us. I'm sure a lot of people are seeing her, in a positive way, in a different light right now. That she is not someone to idolize over superficial traits. That she is someone to be respected for the good they do or be shown compassion for the things that they go through. Just like anyone else. Now, i will say that many entertainment figures are self-centered and look down upon us "commoners", but plenty of them are worthy of respect and they are the ones that should stand out. That being the ones that do not see themselves as being above you.

Selena Gomez is clearly one of these people. The humble ones that don't see themselves as being above anyone or of a different societal 'class'.

I've been a "fan" of her music and tv and movie roles for years now. Going all the way back to Wizards of Waverly Place. One of my favorite film roles that she's in is in The Fundamentals of Caring. Now i won't say i'm some massive fan, don't really have the time for that, but i have a lot of respect for her and standing strong with the things she's going through. All the while she stays open with her fans and communicates openly with them. Doing it despite the things that she's going through and the difficulties of getting her voice out there unfiltered. And it's even worse with social media.

I won't say that her Instagram post about her kidney transplant was brave because that would be cheapening it and just throwing out an insincere term. What she did, by directly putting what she's going through out there, makes her real. That she doesn't see herself as above her fans and others. In interviews she has been upfront about a lot of things. With this age of social media we seem to have this illusion that the amount of followers actually equates to having more/a lot of friends in real life too. It doesn't. Even Selena Gomez, despite her popular, has only a small group of friends (as she's said in interviews) that she's close with.

Social media, while great, is better when we limit our efforts of connections on it and only seek what's beneficial to us. Not in terms of connections but more about limiting the information we take in and not overwhelming ourselves with the bombardment. Her use of social media is social media done right though. She doesn't use it as a platform to post short blurbs and a photo. She actually writes and shares what's on her mind a lot of the time. Reaching out to people is how we should be using social media instead of talking @ people. Even if it's just one person that you feel you have many things in common with.

I’m very aware some of my fans had noticed I was laying low for part of the summer and questioning why I wasn’t promoting my new music, which I was extremely proud of. So I found out I needed to get a kidney transplant due to my Lupus and was recovering. It was what I needed to do for my overall health. I honestly look forward to sharing with you, soon my journey through these past several months as I have always wanted to do with you. Until then I want to publicly thank my family and incredible team of doctors for everything they have done for me prior to and post-surgery. And finally, there aren’t words to describe how I can possibly thank my beautiful friend Francia Raisa. She gave me the ultimate gift and sacrifice by donating her kidney to me. I am incredibly blessed. I love you so much sis. Lupus continues to be very misunderstood but progress is being made. For more information regarding Lupus please go to the Lupus Research Alliance website: https://www.lupusresearch.org -by grace through faith
A post shared by Selena Gomez (@selenagomez) on


September 3, 2017

Witness Trees of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia

September 03, 2017
Witness Trees of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia
Witness Trees are trees that are old enough to have been alive and growing during the times when notable events in U.S. history have occurred. Those witness trees that had been around when the events of the Civil War occurred, and still living today, are over 150 years old. It is said that there are hundreds of Witness Trees at Manassas National Battlefield Park. Many of which are oak trees that can live for hundreds of years. Many of which, such as white oaks, can live beyond 500 years. To just imagine the events that occurred around that tree during the battles at Manassas or even just ordinary events before and after the war. Soldiers that sat in its shade or for defense during battle. Or the witnessing people that walked through the battlefield site, post-war, in the latter 1860s. Back when many artifacts from the war still existed. These trees would've even witnessed the early days of the park's founding in May of 1940. They've been around an incredible history.

As of 2017 there are at least ten witness trees that have been found and identified along the trails. All of which are marked by brown signs along the trails. The trees are found at these locations in the park:

One tree near Thornberry House, along Sudley Loop Trail
Three trees along the Unfinished Railroad Trail
Three trees along the Stuart's Hill Loop Trail
One tree along the Chinn Ridge Loop Trail
One tree along the Henry Hill Loop Trail
One tree along the Stone Bridge Loop Trail

Witness tree along Chinn Ridge loop trail

In addition to the Witness Trees there are plenty of other notable sites along the trails and throughout the park. Visit the National Park Service site for the park and their Facebook page for updates about the park and upcoming events.

August 24, 2017

Arches National Park - Quick Details about the Park

August 24, 2017
Arches National Park - Quick Details about the Park
Arches National Park, which is not far from Moab, Utah is home of numerous stone arches. The official count of arches is usually quoted at 1,500 but there are more than that number of arches in the park. In addition to the arches there are many interesting rock formations and beautiful views of the La Sal Mountains. For hikers there are around 42 trails that range from easy to hard. The majority of these trails are in the easy to moderate range though.
Arches National Park Delicate Arch
Delicate Arch

Of all the arches, Delicate Arch is be the most frequented by trail. It's a spectacular experience just seeing its size up close but, being a moderate hike with a steep section, you will want to be prepared and also bring plenty of water depending on when you visit (such as during warm months).  You should also know that getting a picture of the arch on it own is unlikely, without other visitors being in your photos, during the busy months. The least busy months at the park usually start in November and continue until February. March through October being their busiest months.

One of the most popular campgrounds in the Arches National Park is the Devils Garden Campground. Numerous other campgrounds are also available all around the area of the park and in the Moab area. Before arriving, it is best to plan ahead on where you're going to camp as the Devils Garden Campground can fill up quickly with the other campgrounds filling up by the afternoon hours (around 3 PM).

If you need more information, including current information and news, visit the official page for Arches National Park and especially the Plan Your Visit section. Regular updates about the park on Facebook


July 30, 2017

Tradescantia Pallida - Purple Heart Flower

July 30, 2017
Tradescantia Pallida - Purple Heart Flower
Tradescantia Pallida
Tradescantia Pallida
By SKsiddhartthan (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Tradescantia pallida, otherwise known as Purple Heart (more) and various other names, is a perennial flower that makes for an excellent and attractive ground cover. The plant can be grown indoors and when grown outdoors it can handle full sun to partial shade. Growing zones for the flower are in the ranges of 8A to 11 and the plant is also drought tolerant. In zones 10-11 is where the flowers tend to bloom during the winter.

As for other characteristics, the blooms of the flower can be white, pink, or purple and are known to bloom all year in warmer regions. They can also withstand light to medium frosts, with a temporary die-off, as the roots will survive. To protect the flowers you can use a mulch to protect the roots and plants. Which will increase the chances that the plant will sprout. The most important thing to know about Tradescantia pallida is that it can be invasive and needs to be well-maintained if you choose to grow it.


July 11, 2017

Amethyst

July 11, 2017
Amethyst
I sat there, on the edge of the shoreline, not much after six in the evening. Most of my own thoughts wandered and floated around me, as they have done often these days, as my focus was on the small waves gently colliding with the sand. Looking up, in the distance, was a far-off rainstorm as the rest of the sky was only partly cloudy. The rain cloud stood out in contrast to the rest of the sky beyond it. Then there was the southernly breeze, a few whispers quieter than the waves themselves.

I sat near everyone, amongst myself, as i watched the boats move across the lake in silence. The chatter of the others still muted by the sound of the lake's waves. We were all here for a temporary getaway on these summer days. Each and every one of us were in our own worlds during select moments. The space in which our thoughts are off in another world, another universe in this reality. Places we only know and the descriptions that we give are only seen in a different appearance in the listener's own mind. A difference in appearance as from what you saw, the world that you were in during those moments. In a way, it is our minds, our souls, our spirits that are creating a reality around us. A reality in terms of our interpretation, that we are creating this world and guiding things in very small ways.

AmethystIt was in that, when we spoke, the breeze felt like it followed the pattern of conversation between all the beach goers in that early evening. Which there were only a dozen or so of us. Seven being of myself and family. As they spoke, it was like the breeze itself was transferring far more than atoms, molecules, and the like. It was carrying out thoughts. Amongst that was the fresh scent of the water, the distant rain in the air, and the cookout someone was having somewhere nearby. We were all here to take all of this in. Away from televisions, computers, and yes, even portable devices. We felt the sand beneath our beach towels and the grass as we walked to the concession stand. In this place, time did seem to slow down for those few hours. Each and every soul with a different perspective and a different visual, mental, and spiritual interpretation of memories being made.

You settle into the momentary peace and the environment begin to more deeply settle within you. For these moments, you're feeling a bit of rest after these months of emotions. A grief, the new experience of loss you've never felt prior, that reached further within your soul and spirit than anything. You can finally rest for awhile but yeah, you still think of them.

And a clarity hits me like a revelation; a voice. Something; a sense everywhere and beyond. There in the light of the lowering sun, the environment around you still the same, peace, and an Amethyst chip, that you brought along, is in your hand. It was her birthstone. You dig a small hole, about a foot down, and bury one in her memory. You've got a bulk amount of them with a thought to go with each and everyone one. And a promise to bury them at every special place you visit, fully in her memory. Great places that you know she would've enjoyed visiting if she were still here. When they're not here to make new memories, and have new experiences, remember that we do become an extension of them. A heart, pure souls, have no limit. And sometimes it takes the unexpected for us to realize this. Even if it is a deep tragedy, and deep grief for someone that we never knew, to shake us awake. That we are alive forever and we listen as much with our hearts, spirits, and souls as much as we do with our ears. The rest just takes more practice or an awakening. Within that, beyond the worldly, is where the vastness of knowledge exists. Vast beyond all.

In memory of Katelyn Nicole Davis

June 5, 2017

I've Stopped Watching Television Altogether - Realizations

June 05, 2017
I've Stopped Watching Television Altogether - Realizations
Apologies for this post but it may be a little directionless.

My reasons for no longer watching television have nothing to do with making a statement or about the low quality of most television these days. It's not some sort of experiment for me either. No, it's about something completely different and a shift of my outlook on everything of this world, this nation, entertainment, all of it. It all stems from something that happened almost half a year ago about a girl named Katelyn Davis, who i've written about previously, and she's still in my thoughts all the time. Like a piece of myself is gone forever. For these months, these emotions of feeling down have been all the more real. And sunsets and moon-risings alone have been my most frequent company.

Since that time i've been increasingly unsatisfied with so much that i used to find a comfort in. Maybe, looking back, i could call it a mindless comfort. My mind and heart feels broken, or perhaps full of clarity, and i'm completely incapable of being that person again. The most i watch is maybe a movie a night and around twenty minutes of youtube videos. Beyond that, i cannot get into the 'entertainment' anymore. I cannot even stand certain types of films either.

a television outside in the middle of a streetEveryone else i know, of course, are still completely locked to the television during most of their free time. And when they're not, they have their DVRs set to record their favorite shows and also have them set to record shows that are on at the same time as other shows. I just cannot get into that.

I've been getting to know more people online as a result of the 'catalyst' event but there's a part of me that does want so much more. Wanting a connection beyond something that's momentary. Something not based in seeing the person on the other side as momentary entertainment or a temporary distraction. I've been guilty of it in the past. Wherein only one of us are engaged in the conversation and the other person is there for convenience. We need to truly begin communicating with each other, as real humans, and not as entertainment. To see that we're all reaching out.

If anything, television was the distraction that kept me from realizing how lonely i truly feel. I see the world around me and it's like i see a living apocalypse. So much feels so empty, not as much within me but within everyone else that i see. Like this is a land of zombies where so many are locked-in into their devices for entertainment. Tech addition like this started getting this bad around 2010 and all i want is to get to know people that are beyond that. People that feel like i do. Those of us, the pushed-off  and wandering, wide awake, in a world of those willingly distracted.

All in all, i do want to get to know new people. It's just that i wonder if anyone even wants to get to know me.

May 22, 2017

Interviews with the Father of Katelyn Nicole Davis by Celeste Whoknows

May 22, 2017
Interviews with the Father of Katelyn Nicole Davis by Celeste Whoknows
These two interviews/videos by Celeste Whoknows give an insight into the father's side and the backstory going back to the aughts, while Katelyn was still a young child. The reality is that mistakes were made on all sides in Katelyn's family. At least of those who had regular contact with her.

Katelyn Nicole Davis/Rogers UPDATE & I Talk w/ BIO-DAD


Response To Your Comments About Katelyn Nicole Davis' Bio-Dad


Katelyn Nicole Davis' Dad Answers Your Hard Questions-EMOTIONAL =(


Post-Interview w/ Katelyn Nicole Davis' Bio-Dad-INCONSISTENCIES & AN APOLOGY

Two related videos by Celeste Whoknows that cover Facebook Groups, other questions, and a video about the piece of trash stepfather Anthony Rogers.

Addressing Your Messages On Katelyn Nicole Davis Online Groups & The Investigation


Katelyn Nicole Davis' Step-Dad Got Away w/ Deadly Bullying

April 1, 2017

Mree - Lift Me Up (Live performance)

April 01, 2017
Mree - Lift Me Up (Live performance)


A beautiful song on it's own, this performance by Mree of her song "Lift Me Up" takes you to a completely different world. It's a completely mesmerizing performance. 

March 9, 2017

Gabrielle Aplin - Ghosts (BBC Introducing Maida Vale session)

March 09, 2017
Gabrielle Aplin - Ghosts (BBC Introducing Maida Vale session)

Gabrielle Aplin performing Ghosts in 2011 for the BBC, BBC introducing, at their Maida Vale Studios. A beautiful song and a beautiful performance.

March 1, 2017

Saudade and Deeply Missing Someone That You Never Knew

March 01, 2017
Saudade and Deeply Missing Someone That You Never Knew
Saudade is roughly defined as longing for someone, or something, no longer around. It's a feeling of longing for those who are gone. It is the love that remains and the wishes, of your living experiences, thinking that they should've still been around to experience these things too. It's a feeling of unfairness and having these emotions open one's feeling of their absence and an emptiness within. In part, it's a sadness but can be a combination of happiness and sadness at the same time.

For me, this is a whole new experience and emotion that i've only recognized within myself over the past two months, since early January. I can't explain why i feel this, deeply missing someone i never knew. I can't explain why this hit me so hard. Yet, it's like a feeling of the whole world itself is out of balance and so much feels so different. I'm not even the same person anymore and i can't even stand many of the things i used to. I wake up with thoughts of her on my mind and, as i fall asleep, the thoughts are the same. At this point, it's a subconscious thing that i have no control over. Though it's not overwhelming and manageable. I still tear up every once in a while. Little things throughout the day reminds me of them and all i can think that this is the way of my soul working through things and trying to make a place where i'll never forget them. That and to never forget these changes.

I don't know, i don't understand this, and this is all new to me. I've never missed anyone that i've never known. Especially not this much. It's strange because it's the same feeling i had, the sense of grief but alongside 'light', that i had after having family members pass away. It's like there's an importance to this, why i feel so much over this, and i've yet to find the reason. When the more realist part of myself knows that i just should accept this as it is. That some part of the "world", in a spiritual sense, is trying to speak and we just need to open ourselves with focus. That this is her message.

There is a whole other world that people have outside of the internet and i feel that people sometimes forget that. I know i have in the past. We're all connected but these connections are flimsy at best. The internet is still a fairly recent thing, especially the "modern" internet, and we're only going to feel closer to the people we meet online as social technology develops. But we have to remember the physical aspect, that people on the internet are real, that we're real, and that our souls, our physical selves, aren't likely to ever be represented fully in the digital realm. The internet doesn't have to be a dark place. We always have to leave a place for real world interaction and meeting these people, if you grow close.

We need to make the most of helping people in need when you come across them online. We need to interact with others online with nothing but KiNDness, understanding, and empathy. We need to avoid those who tear down or exploit others. We need to avoid interactions that make us feel regret. This is more than just being about preventing, and not taking a part of, bullying online. It's about going beyond and being a force to counter that. Even a little sunlight in someone's day can save someone. And exploitive behavior, where you see it, is your duty to shut down. To head off those who look to manipulate those who feel down or those who are vulnerable. Those in need of true emotional support don't need parasites, they need honest empathy, compassion, and understanding. Which the internet, this digital realm, needs far more of.

For me, this is what i've promised to do, online and off, for people who are in need of someone to just listen or talk to. This is where the profound change i've experienced comes from and where it stemmed from. I dedicate all these things, the good i put out into the world and the helping of others in need, in memory of Katelyn Nicole Davis. Forever in my memory and forever in my heart. Forever in KiNDness. Forever in memory of Katelyn Nicole Davis.




February 14, 2017

On Elon Musk, "Merger Of Biological Intelligence And Digital Intelligence"

February 14, 2017
On Elon Musk, "Merger Of Biological Intelligence And Digital Intelligence"
Elon Musk recently spoke at the World Government Summit in Dubai about the inevitable future of the combination of people and future technologies.

http://www.cnbc.com/2017/02/13/elon-musk-humans-merge-machines-cyborg-artificial-intelligence-robots.html

These will be technologies that'll be sold as an improvement of the human existence, sold as an enhancement of our individual traits and abilities. But will these future technologies truly achieve this? Or will it make us an extension of a market where we're sold even more products? We'll be marketed to with new, empty slogans and infomercial-style ad content about how to 'upgrade'. At what cost though? At what cost will these things come to us? Sure, there's the monetary cost but what about the cost of our spirit? The chipping away of our individuality, our spirit, our soul?

Technology, and being "connected", has had many negative effects as it is. Especially in terms of people disconnecting from one another and being attached to smart devices. Now imagine if the smart device is connected directly to us? Where the escapism is always there and the distraction doesn't even require the push of a button to dull everything out. What then? What place is left for us? What place is left for our humanity? Where will we begin and the cold electronic part of us end?

The "merger of biological intelligence and digital intelligence" will surely be a good money-maker for business, yes, but what about people? We'll practically be turned into objects, if we chose to, that believe in "upgrading" ourselves every few years. People who take a part in this will find themselves feeling no better than a smart device and the novelty will wear people down to feeling like nothing. The new feeling will wane and things'll begin to feel like a task, a hit, a fix, just to try and reach what once was felt. That is the nature of, a flaw of humans, that seek out escapism through a dulling out of humanity. The aftermath of such a thing may as well be the devastation of humanity itself.

I mean, we're already seeing the clear and present cracks in the digital world when we're indirectly connected to it. Imagine if we had an 'always on' connection and interacting with it has no requirement of actual typing out what you post, or chat, or write? There'd be little escape from this digital world and the endless stream would always be one, if you don't choose to disconnect. And what about those who refuse to become a part of this new 'connected' world? What new intolerances in societies will development due to these facts?

Future technologies like these, which are much closer than we think, are double-edged swords. When people finally become full engrossed in the digital world, what will be the effects on actual, face-to-face communication over time? What will become of compassion, physical contact, the feeling of present energy as people begin to interact less outside of digital realms? What will become our true, beyond the digital, connections as we pull apart? Perhaps even in our own homes. If anything, these things could become the decline of humanity's 'lifeforce', the lessening of our reasons to keep evolving spiritually, and a whole new type of doomsday.

February 8, 2017

'Snow Moon' Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of February 2017

February 08, 2017
'Snow Moon' Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of February 2017
On February 10th, the "snow moon" will be cast into shadow, due to a penumbral eclipse, and the whole eclipse will last (in stages) for about four hours. This eclipse won't be as dramatic as the total lunar eclipse that occurred on September 27th, 2015 but it should still be visibly noticeable. So it'll still be worth seeing depending on if the sky is clear in your region.

February 10 / February 11, 2017 - Penumbral Lunar Eclipse


February 2, 2017

The Mercantile - Polebridge, Montana

February 02, 2017
The Mercantile - Polebridge, Montana
Polebridge, Montana is a small town of around 50 residents that is located a mile away from Glacier National Park. Polebridge is a town that's a throwback to simpler times without all of the modern distractions. There are no wireless networks to connect your devices to, there's no cell service, and the only connections to be made are with the town's residents and the visitors passing through. Most of the town does not have electricity and the buildings that do rely on green energy, mainly solar panels and batteries, and also generators. The 'popular' place in town is the Polebridge Mercantile, which offers up all sorts of baked goods and many other items. Outside of town there's adventure to be found in open nature as all other distractions are not available. If that's your thing, to explore, then a trip to Polebridge, Montana is a must. Perhaps you'll even find yourself never wanting to leave.

Watch this short 2013 documentary, The Mercantile, Directed by Brian Bolster


January 31, 2017

Lacking Empathy and What's Broken in American Society

January 31, 2017
Lacking Empathy and What's Broken in American Society
We, as Americans and from the perspective of citizens of the USA, have been raised up to believe in this American dream. We're all told from a young age that we can be whatever we want to be. Yet, as you reach for that ideal, there are always people there to beat you down. Even amongst some of the people closest to you. Broken people who don't want to see you achieve what they've failed to achieved. They're the ones that have messed up, have forgotten to live, and never went through anything with a purpose. So they tear down things, they tear down those who may achieve what they couldn't or chose not to. They strike out and hit others with what they feel towards themselves. It could be fake friends or even family members that don't want to see you achieve what they couldn't and their need to "sin" comes out in the form of tearing others down. It is their joy. Which develops into your feeling of alienation.

Growing up, and perhaps even now, you may feel that what you believe doesn't matter. That it never mattered. This is in opposition to what are supposed to be these so-called "American ideals". The people you try to discuss your ideas with are the ones who don't really care to listen to your thoughts. Or perhaps they think the fact that you care about anything at all, having a heart, is quaint. That your empathy is a throwback relic that makes you someone that belongs "over there". Wherever "over there" is. More or less, it's a 'get away from me' because people don't want to feel. People thinking you're irrational for having any sort of care for things and people beyond yourself and beyond what's in your life. So you begin to feel tired where you are. And it's not even a place, it's the sin of this society itself.

You can reach this point of emotional evolution at any time during your life. Or you could discover it all over again, regaining the things this society, and others, chip away from you. You can't let this society and people overwhelm you. You have to grow and begin to understand more of what's going on around you. You have to realize the truth of this diseased society. Either from the progression out of blissful youth or an evolution back into what you once knew, but forgot. Something kicks you out of your blindness of recognizing the darkness of this American society.

You feel, deep down, that everything is wrong here. You feel the need to separate yourself from it, this society and you need to go with it. You need to distance yourself from it. You just can't sit back regularly, like so many, and engage in escapism and go along with it all. You can't spend your life numbing yourself like most Americans do. Yes, maybe you feel outside of all of this because you can't get lost in the pointlessness of the entertainment, distraction culture. You just want to find something bigger, something to live for more freely, but your happiness is torn down by those around you stuck in cycles of complacency or you can't break free from the trap of this culture. And you become tired, your house no longer feels like a home. Where you are no longer feels like a place where you belong.

The thing you have to remember though is that there are people out there like yourself. People seeking for something more to live for, and not just in a passing phase. We tire of these places where everyone keeps themselves within abysses of their own making. We're the ones that walk down the street in our communities and see the ghost towns. Even when people are all around. Yet they're completely unaware of everything around them. You're out and staring into the sky and seeing the beauty of the world around you. Yet their interest is in their distractions and their intent is to also tear down your wonder. To chip away at your wonder, your imagination, to suck away your awe of the world and your 'life force', to place you into their existence without wonder. You are put off by the sight of cultural waste as everyone's always distracted by everything but give less attention to the people around them. Places where everybody always addicted to something and you're the outlier for not having a need for the mind-dulling and numbing. Many times these are the people treating the 'awakened' people around them, the old souls, as their paperweights. Treating them with little respect and as an object for them to use and, many times, even abuse.

This is something that those of us who are aware, those who don't feel they're a part of this escapist, broken culture, need to rise above. We need to rise beyond their slumber. This is what a revolution is about, not about going along with the politics and the social waves of this broken society. No, it's about seeking beyond this society and reaching out. It's about empathy and finding each other out here. Out beyond the televisions, the entertainment culture, beyond the escapism. Where the "escape" becomes pure interaction with each other. To shift this society or to move beyond it. Whatever more easily becomes our reality. We need to start new and not expect ourselves to live within confines of this broken culture. And, yes, this needs to be done on the individualistic, decentralized level of our humanity. Only we know what that is, on an individual level, what will be right in seeking out greatness. There is no true guidebook beyond whatever faith, in goodness of your spirit, that you may follow. If you feel discontent then find your path. That voice you hear in the back of your mind is resistance, it is your soul wanting to move beyond this broken society. And yes not everyone hears that voice. Yet, if you truly do then let yourself be open and listen to it; the world around you and not the things of this broken society. Live your American dream, your own interpretation, and live for the good of everything. Don't become darkness and instead be all that's good. The example will rub off on others, the right people, the good people, without effort. Live your life with wholehearted empathy, and also by helping everyone in need, online and off.

===========================================

In Memory of Katelyn Nicole Davis, February 20, 2004 - December 30, 2016 - An old soul gone before her time. Her pain in this world was never something she ever deserved and she never had the chance to see the world outside of the broken life around her. Fly high beautiful.

January 28, 2017

The Space Between Us Trailer - Britt Robertson, Asa Butterfield, Gary Oldman

January 28, 2017
The Space Between Us Trailer - Britt Robertson, Asa Butterfield, Gary Oldman
Starring Britt Robertson and Asa Butterfield, The Space Between Us is a Science Fiction, with elements of romance, that's set to premiere on February 3rd, 2016. It tells the story of Gardner Elliot (Butterfield) and Tulsa (Robertson) who begin communicating online. Gardner is a 'resident' of Mars, being born on the planet, and his only communication with people on Earth. That is, until he reaches the age that he's possibly strong enough to withstand Earth's environment and gravity. He arrives on Earth, kept under high security, but he ends up escaping and taking off with Tulsa to find his father and experience life on Earth.

Watch the movie clip/trailer below.


 

January 27, 2017

Sunwatch Indian Village in Dayton, Ohio

January 27, 2017
Sunwatch Indian Village in Dayton, Ohio
Sunwatch Indian village is a reconstruction of an ancient Native American village that was once home to the Fort Ancient Native American culture. They lived in the region, though not at this exact site, from 1000-1750. The Sunwatch Indian Village was reconstructed based on the locations of archaeological finding and are located on the park's three acre location. The park got its start after evidence of the ancient village were found in the 1960s. In 1971 the site was preserved after digging on the land, for a sewage treatment plant, after artifacts were discovered that showed the existence of the former village.

The park is run by the Dayton Society of Natural History.




January 26, 2017

Photographer Dave Sandford captures Lake Erie during storms

January 26, 2017
Photographer Dave Sandford captures Lake Erie during storms


Dave Sandford, a photographer from London, Ontario, Canada, has photographed many subjects over his nineteen years in the business. According to his website, he's done mostly sports photographer but his interest in photography started with photographing nature. Many of his photos can be found his official website and his Instagram account. You can also follow Dave Sandford on Twitter.

Other Photos of Lake Erie

January 25, 2017

The Story Of Painted Post, NY

January 25, 2017
The Story Of Painted Post, NY

The Story Of Painted Post, NY

What's In A Name?

How does a town get a name of "Painted Post?"  There's an easy answer to that...and a longer story.  The quick answer is the town was named after a post placed there by Indians. The real reason why the post was placed is not exactly know. But one speculation is that is was painted in a color combination suitable for some primitive type of communications. What's also not know is when the original was put in place.

The naming of this community in Steuben County, adjacent to Corning, NY, goes back to the Colonial Days and the Revolutionary War.  At that time, white men visiting the area found, on this very site, (the small park at the Community Square) an oak wood post which was square to a height of four feet and then octagonal to the top.  The surface was painted red and decorated with black figures, about half without heads.  There were numerous references to this "painted post" by the early settlers who found several explanations from the Indians who put it there.  For some it was regarded as a memorial to a fallen chieftain, for others a marker for assemblies and, a "war post" around which dances were held.

That original post endowed this place with a name which will endure as long as recorded history. By 1808, the first namesake had disintegrated and a fitting substitute was put up.  Since then there have been several other replacements and time, wind, and weather have taken their toll.  The present monument goes back to about 1950.

The Indian with the bow waves a greeting to visitors at the Community Square in Painted Post today, which is in the heart of the downtown business district.  It's not far from a major industrial property where an Allegheny field service team was working. During a lunch break, the pictures you see here were taken.




January 24, 2017

Mugu Rock and Point Mugu, California

January 24, 2017
Mugu Rock and Point Mugu, California


Mugu Rock, in Ventura County, California, gets its name from the Chumash word for beach, Muwu. It is a prominent land feature in Point Mugu and took on its current formation during the creation of the Pacific Coast Highway, starting in 1937. Prior to that, a narrow road went around the rock and its erosion was the reason for new route that was cut through the ridge.


January 23, 2017

A Tour of Flintstones Bedrock City in Valle, Arizona

January 23, 2017
A Tour of Flintstones Bedrock City in Valle, Arizona

January 22, 2017

Fort Roberdeau - History of the Original Lead Mine Fort

January 22, 2017
Fort Roberdeau - History of the Original Lead Mine Fort
From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, June 1973.

The location of the Fort is in the Sinking Valley region on the slope of Brush Mountain. The site is in an area of dense growth -- trees, shrubs, weeds -- recently removed by concerned citizens. Removal of the vegetation revealed a concrete foundation outlining the fort, poured between 1939-1941 for the purpose of reconstructing the site. Impetus for reconstruction was begun by concerned local agencies with National Youth Administration workers doing the physical labor. This was based upon the work of Donald A. Cadzow, State Archaeologist, who uncovered the original stone and brick foundation. The only remains above ground surface were the powder magazine walls of stone and brick and a square of masonry work, probably part of a smelting plant. Reconstruction efforts were discontinued in 1941 with the advent of World War II.

By Pubdog [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Few descriptions are available on the forts original appearance. The Columbian Magazine (September 1788) notes the erection of "a large fort of logs." Africa (1883) mentions the log fort upon which were mounted two small cannon, possessing a good armament, and manned by a regular garrison of 10-40 men. He also makes note of a smelting furnace. A sketch appearing in The Columbian Magazine of Fort Roberdeau (December 1788) shows a wall of what appears to be horizontal logs with a gate in the center and various out-buildings outside the wall. Craine (1941) notes the accompanying wording, "a timber fort, used for the same purpose as a blockhouse, but designed to accommodate a greater number of persons. Such a structure was generally made in the shape of a hollow square with various buildings and a watchtower within showing the line of loopholes at shoulder height." Craine notes that the stockade logs were horizontal rather than the customary vertical or up-right position because of the out-cropping of limestone which made it difficult to excavate deeply enough to place the logs in a vertical position.

The Fort site presently comprises 1.978 acres. The outline of the fort itself reveals a square structure with blockhouse-type protrusions on each of the four corners.

With the advent of the Revolutionary War, lead for the Continental Army became of great importance. Lead deposits were discovered in what was then the Sinking Spring Valley region, presently Sinking Valley, in Central Pennsylvania. General Daniel Roberdeau, a prominent Philadelphia merchant, an Associator, and a member of the Committee of Safety, was assigned the task of supervising mining operations in the area. Roberdeau, in order to house the miners of the area and to protect them from both Indians and Tories, erected the Fort in l777-l778 near the lead deposits in what is today Blair County. Eugene Craine, citing an original Roberdeau letter, states that he probably set up some kind of fort on an initial visit during 1777 and strengthened it on a second visit in 1778 by building a stockade.

The amount of lead derived from local mines is unknown. The enterprise was apparently abandoned by 1779 due to lack of assistance and expenses involved in mining operations. However, The Columbian Magazine (September, 1788) notes that the miners were from the old country, unused to the frontier life, and that the "whole undertaking fell to the ground." The Fort nevertheless remained standing even after its abandonment by garrison troops and continued to serve as a refuge for the local settlers. Craine notes that the Fort was occupied at least through 1781.

Fort Roberdeau was one of five frontier forts in Blair County in the 1777-1778 time-period. However, the other four were built by private enterprise, of the block-house type. Fort Roberdeau, commonly known as the Lead Mine Fort, appears to have been the only fort in Blair county built and manned by soldiers of the Continental Army.


Bibliographical References
Africa, J. Simpson, History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties,
   Pennsylvania, "Blair County," (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883).
The Columbian Magazine, September and December, 1788, (Philadelphia: W. Spotswood).
Craine, Eugene R., The Story of Fort Roberdeau, 1777 to 1783,
    (Altoona: The Tourist & Publicity Bureau of the Chamber of Commerce, The City of Altoona,  1941).
Davis, Tarring S., ed., A History of Blair County, Pennsylvania, Vol. 1,
    (Harrisburg: National Historical Association, Inc., 1931).
Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, Vol. 1, (Clarence M. Busch, State Printer, 1896).

Fort Roberdeau; Lead Mine Fort, The