Lodge EC1D43 3 Quart Cast Iron Dutch Oven

Monday, September 26, 2022 0
Lodge EC1D43 3 Quart Cast Iron Dutch Oven

If you're looking for a classic, top quality, reliable Dutch oven that will help you prepare delicious meals, the Lodge EC1D43 is a great option. This enameled cast iron oven is durable and long-lasting, so you can enjoy it for years to come.

Lodge EC1D43 Cast Iron Dutch Oven
The Lodge EC1D43 3 Quart Cast Iron Dutch Oven is a durable and versatile cooking pot that can be used on a variety of cooking surfaces, including induction, gas, electric, and even in the oven or over an open flame.

This Dutch oven is made of high-quality cast iron, which is known for its even heat distribution and retention. It features a tight-fitting lid that helps to lock in moisture and flavors, and also has a stainless steel knob on the top that is oven safe up to 500°F.

The interior of the Dutch oven is coated with Lodge's proprietary enamel, which is both durable and easy to clean. The enamel coating also prevents food from sticking and helps to prevent rusting, which is a common problem with bare cast iron cookware.

The Lodge EC1D43 3 Quart Cast Iron Dutch Oven has a capacity of 3 quarts, which is perfect for cooking small to medium-sized meals. It measures 9.5 inches in diameter and 3.75 inches in height, making it compact enough to store easily in a cabinet or on a shelf.

Overall, the Lodge EC1D43 3 Quart Cast Iron Dutch Oven is a high-quality and versatile cooking pot that is ideal for a wide range of cooking applications, from soups and stews to roasts and casseroles. It is built to last for years and is backed by Lodge's lifetime warranty.

Learn More, including reading customer reviews, by clicking here

The Confederate Rose: A Symbol of Beauty and Resilience

Friday, September 09, 2022 0
The Confederate Rose: A Symbol of Beauty and Resilience

Confederate Rose (Hibiscus mutabilis) is a flowering plant native to China and is also commonly known as the Cotton Rosemallow, Dixie Hibiscus, or Cotton Rose. It is a member of the Malvaceae family and is grown for its beautiful flowers, which change color throughout the day.

Some Facts about the flowering plant

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that can reach a height of up to 15 feet.

It showcases large, showy flowers that come in various colors, ranging from white to pink to deep red.

The flowers have a crepe-paper-like texture and typically measure 4-6 inches in diameter.

Blooming occurs from late summer to early fall, with the plant producing flowers for several months.

A fascinating feature of the Confederate Rose is its color-changing ability throughout the day.

The flowers start off white in the morning, turn pink in the afternoon, and deepen into a rich red by evening.

This color transformation is a natural process called "chromatophore expansion," where pigments in the flowers shift.

The Confederate Rose is a hardy plant that thrives in different soil types and climates.

It prefers full sun to partial shade and well-draining soil.

It is also drought-tolerant and can withstand high temperatures.

Due to its name and connection to the Confederate States of America, the Confederate Rose has been associated with controversy.

Some people choose to rename the plant to Cotton Rosemallow or Dixie Hibiscus to distance it from its Confederate connotations.

How to Care for a Confederate Rose

Here are some general care guidelines for a Confederate Rose:

Sunlight: Confederate Roses prefer full sun to partial shade, so try to plant them in a location that receives at least six hours of sunlight per day.

Watering: Confederate Roses are relatively drought-tolerant, but they will benefit from regular watering during dry periods. Make sure the soil is moist but not waterlogged.

Soil: These plants are adaptable and can grow in a variety of soil types, but they prefer well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter.

Fertilizer: You can fertilize your Confederate Rose once or twice a year with a balanced fertilizer. Avoid fertilizing in late summer or fall, as this can encourage new growth that may be damaged by frost.

Pruning: You can prune your Confederate Rose in late winter or early spring to remove any dead or damaged branches and to promote bushier growth. You can also shape the plant to your desired size and shape.

Winter protection: Confederate Roses are hardy in USDA zones 7-9, but they may need some winter protection in colder climates. You can mulch around the base of the plant to protect the roots, and you can also cover the plant with a frost cloth or burlap if there is a risk of frost.

Pests and diseases: Confederate Roses are relatively pest and disease-resistant, but they can be susceptible to spider mites, aphids, and whiteflies. You can use insecticidal soap or neem oil to control these pests. If you notice any signs of fungal disease, such as black spots on the leaves, you can treat the plant with a fungicide.

Overall, Confederate Roses are relatively low-maintenance plants that can add a beautiful splash of color to your garden in late summer and fall.

The Confederate Rose in Pop Culture and Art

The Confederate Rose has been featured in various works of art and popular culture, both in the United States and around the world.

In literature, the Confederate Rose is mentioned in several novels, including "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee and "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn" by Betty Smith. In these novels, the plant is used as a symbol of resilience and adaptability in difficult circumstances.

In music, the Confederate Rose has been referenced in several songs, including "Confederate Rose" by Waylon Jennings and "Confederate Rose" by the country music duo The Bellamy Brothers. These songs often use the plant as a metaphor for the enduring spirit of the South.

The Confederate Rose has also been depicted in various works of visual art. The artist Georgia O'Keeffe painted a series of watercolor paintings featuring the plant, which are now part of the collection at the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The plant has also been featured in the work of other artists, such as James Michalopoulos and Andrei Protsouk.

In addition, the Confederate Rose has been used as a symbol in various Confederate-themed products, such as flags, t-shirts, and other merchandise. However, this association with the Confederacy has been controversial and has led some people to distance themselves from the plant's original name.

Meaning of the Confederate Rose

The meaning of the Confederate Rose has evolved over time and can vary depending on cultural and regional contexts. Originally native to China, the Confederate Rose was brought to the United States in the 18th century and was widely cultivated in the southern states, where it became associated with the Confederacy during the American Civil War.

For some people, the Confederate Rose symbolizes the resilience and endurance of the South during a difficult period of history. The plant's ability to change colors throughout the day has also been seen as a metaphor for the shifting fortunes of the Confederacy during the war.

However, for others, the Confederate Rose is a controversial symbol due to its association with the Confederate States of America and the history of slavery and racism in the United States. Some people have chosen to distance themselves from the plant's original name and instead refer to it as the Cotton Rosemallow or Dixie Hibiscus.

Overall, the meaning of the Confederate Rose can be interpreted in different ways depending on individual perspectives and cultural contexts.

If you would like to get some Confederate Rose plants of your own, click here

How to Choose the Perfect Stained Glass Table Lamp For Your Home

Saturday, September 03, 2022 0
How to Choose the Perfect Stained Glass Table Lamp For Your Home

Stained glass table lamps add appealing lighting elements to your home or any room within it. One that enhances the ambiance of your home, whether in the living room or the bedroom. They will undoubtedly enhance and bring out the mood of any space in your home with the correct arrangement and lamp. Stained glass table lamps have long been a popular choice among interior designers and homeowners.

Stained glass table lamps are also available in an almost limitless variety of colors, styles, and preferences in many stores that sell them, particularly online. If you are looking for these types of table lamps, it is best to be familiar with their characteristics, benefits, and wide range of options.

Stained Glass Table Lamps Come in a Variety of Styles

Stained glass table lamps are available for purchase in a variety of locations and are popular with people all over the world. Here are some types of stained glass table lamps to help you decide:

  • Stained Glass Tiffany Lamps These are one-of-a-kind stained glass fixtures inspired by American classical designs. These Tiffany lamps will bring a timeless touch of elegance to any room in your house. These lamps are made of iridescent and hand-cut art glass, with signature looks that include geometric patterns and even beautiful floral designs. Tiffany stained glass table lamps are ideal for adding ambiance to home decor. They are frequently available in other styles, such as accent and floor lamps.

  • Vintage Desk and Table Lamps Vintage appearances, patterns, and styles continue to be incredibly popular among people trying to improve the interior spaces of their homes. There are numerous vintage designs to pick from when it comes to selecting certain antique designs. They are available in a variety of designs and styles ranging from the elegant to the understated and everything in between.

  • Peacock Stained Glass Table Lamps The “Peacock” stained glass lamps have been a favorite motif of Tiffany. These lamps are usually made of bronze or glass lamp materials. They are also commonly available in vivid colors of peacock feathers blended with various color tones to create an attractive appearance.

Dragonfly Lamp by Clara Driscoll for Tiffany Studios, circa 1910, leaded glass and bronze, Dayton Art Institute

Where Can I Purchase These Stained Glass Table Lamps?

If you're looking for a stained glass table lamp with the best prices, online is usually the best place to look. Yard and garage sales are a close second. Although these types of lamps are uncommon at yard sales. You should also be able to find them in local retailers.

Online, you can find a bigger range of styles and selections, as well as a greater variety of lamps. At the same moment, you will receive important information such as the price, discount (if applicable), user reviews, and more.

Why Should You Buy a Stained Glass Table Lamp?

Stained glass table lamps are popular among creative homeowners for a variety of reasons. The most obvious explanation is that these goods assist them in achieving a distinct appearance, elegance, and attractiveness that will last. A stained glass lamp is also something you may pass down through your family if you so desire.

Depending on the type of stained glass lamp and where you purchase it, you may also be able to enjoy significant savings (or discounts) and hassle-free delivery. More information and customer reviews can be found by clicking any of the links above.

Why Floating Solar Panels Are The 'Wave' Of The Future

Monday, August 22, 2022 0
Why Floating Solar Panels Are The 'Wave' Of The Future

As the world looks for ways to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and move towards renewable energy sources, solar power has emerged as one of the most promising options. Solar panels have been installed on rooftops and in fields for years, but there is a new application for this technology that is taking the world by storm: floating solar panels.

Floating solar panels are not just a novel way to generate renewable energy – they also come with a host of other benefits. For example, they can be used to provide shade and cooling for reservoirs, which can help to reduce evaporation. They can also be used to generate power in remote locations where it is not possible to install traditional ground-mounted solar panels.

Floating Solar Panel Electricity Production

Solar panels installed on a structure that floats on a body of water, often a reservoir or a lake, are referred to as floating solar or floating photovoltaics.

Since 2016, the market for this renewable energy method has expanded fast. Throughout 2007 to 2013, the very first 20 plants with capacity of around a dozen kWp were constructed. In 2020, produced power reached 3 GW, with 10 GW anticipated by 2025.

The price of a floating installation is 20-25% greater than the cost of a land installation.

Positives of Floating Solar Panel Installations and related electricity production

The fundamental advantage of floating photovoltaic systems is the fact that they not require any land, aside from the small areas required for the electric cabinet and grid hookups. Their cost is equivalent to that of land-based systems, however floating photovoltaic systems offer an excellent option for reducing land consumption.

Floating photovoltaic power systems are much more streamlined than land-based systems, have simpler management, and thus are easier to build and dismantle. The significant aspect is that there aren't permanent structures, such as those used for land-based plants. Therefore, the installation is completely reversible.

Water conservation and water quality is improved by the solar panels partially covering water bodies. This benefit is influenced by both the climate and the amount of the covered surface.

Cooling the floating structure is basic. Environmental cooling can be maximized by having put a water layer on the photovoltaic modules or by having them in the water. Which, in turn, can increase the amount of electricity generated.

The platforms can be rotated both horizontally and vertically to follow the sun. Moving photovoltaic panels need minimal power as well as no sophisticated mechanical equipment. The cost of outfitting a floating photovoltaic plant with such a system is minimal.

Algal blooms, a severe concern in developed nations, may be decreased. The partial basin coverage and light reduction of the panels may reduce the growth of algal blooms. 

In conclusion, floating solar panels are an innovative and sustainable way to generate energy. They have a number of advantages over traditional ground-mounted solar panels, easier installation, and less environmental impact. Gloating solar panels offer a promising solution for the future of energy production.

The Alarming Effects of Light Pollution on Trees and What You Can Do To Help

Tuesday, August 09, 2022 0
The Alarming Effects of Light Pollution on Trees and What You Can Do To Help

It is no secret that pollution, including light pollution, is one of the most pressing environmental issues of our time. But what many people don't realize is that this pollution doesn't just impact our own health and quality of life - it also takes a toll on the natural world. Trees are particularly vulnerable to the effects of light pollution, and this can lead to a host of problems for both the trees themselves and the ecosystems they support.

In this blog post, we'll take a look at some of the ways light pollution affects trees, from interfering with their natural growth cycles to making them more susceptible to disease. We'll also explore what can be done to mitigate the effects of light pollution on trees and help protect our planet's precious green spaces.

How to minimize the impact that light pollution has trees

In modern society, light pollution has become a big problem. It has detrimental effects on our environment, especially trees, as well as our ability to appreciate the sky at night. We'll look at how light pollution harms trees and what we can do to mitigate those effects.

Effects of light pollution on trees

Light pollution can harm trees in a variety of ways including by disrupting photosynthesis, interfering with the tree's natural cycle regarding day and night, and attracting pests. Plants use the process of photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into food. A tree's growth may be stunted if this process is hindered. Trees can also be harmed by altering their natural day/night cycle since it throws off their biological clocks and hinders them from getting the required amount of rest. Furthermore, light pollution can bring pests like beetles and moths, which can damage trees even more by laying their eggs on their leaves.

Light pollution's risks to trees

Even though light pollution's effects on trees may appear to be very minimal, they can have a long-term negative impact on both the health of particular trees and entire ecosystems. Light pollution has been demonstrated in some instances to entirely destroy young seedlings. In some instances, it can make mature trees more prone to illness and pests. Moreover, insects drawn to artificial lighting frequently escape from their natural predators, causing population imbalances that can disrupt entire ecosystems.

How to reduce the harm light pollution does to trees.

Using reflective materials like mirrors or aluminum foil to deflect stray light away from trees is another method of reducing light pollution's effect on trees. If a mirror is positioned behind an outdoor lighting fixture, for instance, the light will obviously be reflected back toward the fixture rather than out into the surroundings. This can still give the area enough illumination while assisting in reducing glare and sky glow. Similar methods can also be done with aluminum foil, which should only be used as a last resort because it is not as effective as a mirror.

In the modern world, light pollution is becoming a greater problem. As a result of the numerous negative effects that excessive artificial light has on trees, they are just one of the many victims of light pollution. While light pollution can have negative impacts on trees, there are also measures to lessen these effects and shield trees from further harm.

We can lessen the detrimental effects of light pollution on trees by growing them in appropriate places, utilizing light-colored mulch, and using reflective materials. Additionally, finding long-term remedies depends on increasing awareness of this problem. To preserve our environment and its natural riches, we must continue to take part in preserving the night.

Blackfeet Star Stories - Story of Scar-Face (Poia)

Thursday, July 07, 2022 0
Blackfeet Star Stories - Story of Scar-Face (Poia)

Listen, for now comes one of the many stories told of Scar-Face.

Once there lived a girl who was kind and beautiful. Many young men wanted to marry her, but one by one she turned them away. This concerned her mother and father, and they asked, why will you not marry any of these young men? They are fine young men. The girl explained that Natosi, Sun, had once visited her and told her she could not marry anyone for she belonged only to him.

Her parents accepted her explanation and no more was said to her. Even so, young men still asked to marry. Now in that same place lived a young man whose body was strong and pleasing. He would have been handsome were it not for a terrible scar on his face. 

His name was Poia, Scarface. Scarface was an orphan. Having no one, he grew up going from one family to another for food and clothing. But all his life he cried, for always there were people who laughed at him and made fun of his scarred face and the fact that he was pitiful. 

One day the young men in the camp were making fun of him and one said, Scarface, the girl has refused to marry us but you are so handsome. You should ask her to marry you. And since you are so rich, said another, she will certainly choose to marry you. And then they all laughed.

Scarface went off by himself. He had seen the girl many times, and he had come to love her. He decided to go to the girl, profess his love, and asked her to marry him. He found the girl standing by a stream. I am Scarface, he said. I am poor and ugly, but I am a good person. I love you and I want to marry you. And to his amazement, the girl said, I care not if you are poor, I will marry you, but first you must go to Sun and ask permission to marry me. Ask Sun to remove the scar as a sign that we truly have his blessing.

Esopus Munsee Winter Customs - Deep Snow Moon and The Story of the Celestial Bear

Friday, June 10, 2022 0
Esopus Munsee Winter Customs - Deep Snow Moon and The Story of the Celestial Bear

Esophus Munsee

Since time immemorial, the land on which historic Huguenot Street sits today was home to Esopus Munsee people and their Lenape ancestors. Long before any stone houses were built here, indigenous families lived in circular dwellings made of plant materials, primarily saplings and bark. These homes were called wigwams and looked similar to the replica that stands today on the lawn of the DuBois Fort Visitor Center.

The Esopus Munsee people spoke a Munsee dialect of the Lenape language. Lenape is one of the languages of the East Algonquin subgroup of the Algonquin language family. This map indicates some of the Indigenous territories and different languages that were spoken in what is now New York State and the surrounding region.

Efforts are being made today to preserve and teach the Lenape language.



Munsee / Munsey - "people of a stone country.". (Minassiniu, Minisink, Minsi, Moncy, Monthey, Mundook, Muncey, Munsi, Muncie).

Four groups of this division were sometimes called together (Esopus, Espachomy) : Catskill, Momekotiny, Waranawonkong, Wawarsink

Culturally, the Mansi stood apart and until the last century were often considered an independent tribe. The term appears in sources in the 18th century.

The Passamaquoddy: A People Reborn Short Documentary

Wednesday, April 27, 2022 0
The Passamaquoddy: A People Reborn Short Documentary

The Passamaquoddy

In the early 1960s the Passamaquoddy tribe was at an all time low, but they were about to begin a two decade battle with the State of Maine which would forever change themselves, their relationship between the United States Government, and all Native American tribes.

Its conclusion would bring a new wealth, and a new pride to the native peoples of Maine.

But with it came unexpected troubles and dissension which struck to the heart of what it means to be Indian.

Preceding these events, in the late 18th century, Congress created the Nonintercourse Act, declaring that any transfer of land from Indians to non-Indians had to be approved by Congress.

Between 1794 and 1833, title to most of the land of the Passamaquoddy was transferred o the state of Maine and individuals. Those transfers, encompassing two-thirds of the state of Maine, were never approved by the U.S. Congress, and were therefore illegitimate.

This was the foundation for the Maine Indian Land Claims Case of 1980. 

Before the Claims settlement, the conditions on the Maine reservations were poor. The houses were small and wooden, with little to no insulation, leaky roofs, and bare floors.

In the sixties, 85% of the houses had no toilets or plumbing.


The average annual family income is $3000, well below the national poverty level. Most members of the Passamaquoddy Tribe live on this 100 acre reservation on the Northeast coast of Maine. Here, an unemployment rate of 50% is a sign that things are getting better.

Intolerance for the tribal people and their culture was common in many areas of Maine, and over time, they grew used to the treatment. Discrimination was very regular. As a matter of fact it happened so regularly that we didn't even know that it was discrimination. One of the things about an oppressed people is they get so used to it they think it's normal. And you act a certain way accordingly, and you try to survive by saying that's the way it is.

So there was all of this going on, and the saddest part is that we went along with it because  we thought it was normal and the other thing is it was so hopeless that we thought we couldn't change it.

Indians were derided by whites, and treated with the same contemptuous nature that blacks in the South were suffering, although resident Whites blinded themselves to this. As Donald Hansen of the Kennebec Journal wrote in 1965, Maine folk can get pretty upset when a Negro in Mississippi has to move to the back of the bus and yet remain relatively indifferent when they learn that barbers refuse to cut the hair of a Passamaquoddy Indian.

Visit https://www.passamaquoddy.com


Chef Boyardee 1953 Spaghetti Dinner Kits Commercial

Sunday, April 03, 2022 0
Chef Boyardee 1953 Spaghetti Dinner Kits Commercial

Hello, may I come in?

I am Chef Boyardee. Perhaps you have seen my picture on Chef Boyardee products at you grocers?

Today I want to tell you about a wonderful dinner for three. A dinner that only costs about fifteen cents a serving. It's my own Chef Boyardee spaghetti dinner with meat sauce or mushroom sauce. It all comes in one carton. A full half pound of tender, quick cooking spaghetti, ten full ounces of rich, tasty sauce and to top it off, a whole can of simply grated cheese. A wonderful food.

So ask your grocer for Chef Boyardee spaghetti dinner with meat or mushroom sauce, won't you? And look for other Chef Boyardee's products. They're all so delicious but also nourishing, and they help keep the cost of your meals down.

Chef Boyardee products are at best grocer.

Ask for Chef Boyardee's spaghetti dinner. Only about 15 cents a serving.

Chef Boyardee

Here's a 1979 Chef Boyardee also starring Ettore Boiardi in his last appearance in Chef Boyardee commercials

Facts about Ettore Boiardi

He took a chef apprenticeship at a restaurant in Italy at the age of 11 but was mainly relegated to doing custodial tasks at the La Croce Bianca restaurant.. He later learned true restaurant skills in Paris and London prior to coming to the USA.

After his family arrived in the USA in 1914, he got a job as a cook at tony Plaza Hotel (where his brother also worked) and was eventually promoted to head chef.

He catered Woodrow Wilson's wedding banquet at the Greenbrier Resort in West Virginia.

The precursor to his idea for Chef Boyardee home meals was at his  Il Giardino d'Italia restaurant in Cleveland. He would package ingredients of pasta, cheese and his spaghetti sauce in milk bottles for restaurant patrons. From that, demand for his food "packages" became so great that, in 1928, he opened a small processing plant that soon became the home to Chef Boyardee products.




Battle of the Network Stars V - Robin Williams, William Shatner and Others - November 18th, 1978

Monday, February 28, 2022 0
Battle of the Network Stars V - Robin Williams, William Shatner and Others  -  November 18th, 1978

Battle of the Network Stars V - November 18th, 1978 

The majority of the Battle of the Network Stars competitions took place at Pepperdine University. With the exception of  Battle of the Network Stars XVIII, which took place in Ixtapa, Mexico.

Working with me this time around, a freshman at Pepperdine but the venerable statesman from the University of Southern California, my colleague on Monday Night Football, The Giffer.

I thought this was supposed to be fun? Captain Conrad's going nuts over there. He's firing up his team, it's incredible. You know, I've hosted the men's superstars on ABC and I almost have the same feeling here Howard and that is, well there's a lot of fun and there's a whole lot of happiness involved in it. They really are serious. These are really competitors. Now the captains along with Conrad, McLean Stevenson, Gabe Kaplan, they've had their teams out, secretly working out. So, we're in for a lot of fun, a lot of kicks. They all want to win.

Right you are Gif and as you can see from the past four battles, the ABC stars have won twice. CBS and NBC each have won one.

Now we're ready for the swimming competition.  That's the scene set, that Olympic sized swimming pool. Quickly the rules, 5 to each team. 2 on each team must be females. Each participant swims one lap. That's one width of the pool. 25 yards, but the anchorperson swims two widths of 50 yard. Winning team gets 100 points. Second place 75. Third place team 50. 

In lane introductions, the team of stars of NBC shows right there. Caskey Swaim. And in the number two spot, Pam Hensley, gives a little bit of luster. Then Bill Devane. Brianne Leary, who has the look of a competitor. And the anchorman is Joe Bottoms.

Then the team of stars on ABC. Leading off, Richard Hatch. The veteran of this competition, being on previously when he was in Streets of San Francisco. The number two spot for this team, Maren Jensen. Debby Boone is in the number three spot and then Robin Williams swimming in the 4th spot. The anchorman for this team is big Bob Urich. 

Now the team of stars from CBS shows. Leading off, that was Timmy Reid. Miss Charlene Tilton, number two. LeVar Burton, number three. Valerie Bertinelli is number four. The number five man is David Lettermen.

Related Links:


Soldier Huts That Housed George Washington's Continental Army at Valley Forge

Saturday, February 05, 2022 0
Soldier Huts That Housed George Washington's Continental Army at Valley Forge
This is a video by the American Battlefield Trust and they're at Valley Forge National Historical Park. Here are some of the recreated soldiers huts that George Washington's Continental Army would have lived in during the winter of 1777-1778. 

Valley Forge

We see from the outside we have a roof, we have stacked logs that have notches in them known as saddle notches here. We also have between our logs um today what is cement but at the time would have been clay, hay, straw, everything together. We have a small chimney trying to make this as much of a log cabin or a home for 12 soldiers. Yes, 12 soldiers would live in this 14 by 16 hut. 

We'll take a step inside for just a second. You can see how they would live in here on their bunks. You have a small fireplace where you would cook and you would have for heat. But 12 men would live inside of here. They would try to make it as comfortable as possible. 

Sometimes you would find women in here. There are at least 400 women who are following the army here to Valley Forge. So this would be very cramped quarters if you're a soldier in Washington's army.

More about Valley Forge:

Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight winter encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General George Washington, during the American Revolutionary War. In September 1777, Congress fled Philadelphia to escape the British capture of the city. After failing to retake Philadelphia, Washington led his 12,000-man army into winter quarters at Valley Forge, located approximately 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia. They remained there for six months, from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. At Valley Forge, the Continentals struggled to manage a disastrous supply crisis while retraining and reorganizing their units. About 1,700 to 2,000 soldiers died from disease, possibly exacerbated by malnutrition.


Patterson Maple Farms Sugar House - 2019 PCN Tour

Tuesday, February 01, 2022 0
Patterson Maple Farms Sugar House - 2019 PCN Tour
Good morning and welcome to Patterson Farms. My name is Linda Neal and I've worked here at Patterson's for 28 years now, so I've seen a lot of changes. 

Before we start going into the sugarhouse I'd like to give you a little idea of what the family is here. In the early 1920s, Grandma and Grandpa Patterson, and that would be Orin and Mabel Patterson, started here on the farm. They had a little dairy of cattle. They tapped a few sugar bushes up on top of the hill and made a little bit of syrup. And how they made their syrup was they used wooden buckets and wooden spiles. They tapped their trees with a hand auger, brought their sap down to their backyard with a horse-drawn sleigh and the sap and they boiled outside on a flat pan. 

Patterson Maple Farms

When they passed the farm down to Clifton and Alberta Patterson, they changed a little bit. They built a sugar house. They got a wood-fired evaporator, put in twenty six hundred buckets that Richard and Robert and Mary Lee had to dump twice a day. 

When it passed down to Richard that's when it really changed. We got into tubing and a lot more taps. We got up to 87,000 taps and 26 different sugar bushes. We got a new evaporator. We built a larger sugar house. 

Now we're down to our fifth generation, Terri and Terry Patterson. So we're changing every day. I've been very lucky to work with three out of the five generations. Our seasons run anywhere from the end of January into April. We need freezing nights, warmed up days to about 41 degrees, and a westerly wind. And if you don't have that three combination, the sap doesn't run very well.

There's 143 different species of maple. Now in our area here we have red, silver, black swamp, striped. But the best tree to make your syrup from is the American Sugar Maple and that's what we basically tap here. Trees have to be 30 years old before we tap them and about 10 inches in diameter. We'll put one tap in the tree. As the trees grow larger and larger we may put two or three taps in the tree. But here at Patterson's that's as far as we go. It doesn't hurt your trees to be tapped every single year. 

Mother nature knows when to turn the sap off when it's ready for the leaves to come out and if you look at this cross cut here of a sugar maple tree, you can see the old tap holes this shows you that it does not hurt your trees to be tapped every year. Putting a new hole in the tree. It just grows right on over. 

This tree was 143 years old when it had to come down after a storm and it was giving sap at about 30 years and it was still giving sap when it was cut down. 

When sap comes from a sugar maple tree it's clear like water, about two percent sugar, and a two percent sugar it takes 43.7 gallons of sap to make one gallon of syrup. So we need a lot of sap to make a lot of syrup. Now you say with so many different kinds of maple trees, how do you tell a sugar maple? Well the way I do it because it's the easiest way, I look at the leaves. And on a sugar maple leaf it has five points to it. No other maple tree does. When there's no leaves on the trees you can look at the twigs and on a sugar maple twig it grows and v shapes. No other maple tree does. Now when our guys get really good at it all they have to do is look at the outside bark. It has a very distinctive look and feel to it. 

Now the first people who made maple syrup were the Indians. And how they did it was they took a tomahawk or hatchet and they would put a great big slice in the tree, put a piece of bark under that slice and the sap would run down and into their birch buckets but they pitched on the inside to carry their sap back to either their teepees or their sugar camps out in the woods. And how they boiled is they had a hollowed-out log and they would put their sap in the hollowed-out log. Heat rocks up, drop the rocks into the sap and that's how they made their sugar and they kept it in sugar blocks just like this. This is how they kept their syrup. Now if they wanted syrup they would just scratch a little off, add water back to it and it would become syrup again. 

Now to tell whether it's sugaring season we normally look at a calendar and we know that about the end of January it's time to get ready start tapping your trees and getting ready for the next sugaring season. The Indians didn't have that and how they could tell that it was sugaring season is by the moon phases. Now in a year there's always 13 full moons and it was the third full moon of the season that they knew was a sugar moon and that's when they usually started making their maple syrup. Third full moon in this year was around the 22nd of March and that's when they would have started to make their syrup. 

How they got their calendar is by looking at the turtle and on the turtle's shell there's always 13 cylinders on the top of the shell that was the 13th full moons and the little cylinders on the outside of the turtle shell is always 28 and that was the 28 days in between each full moon. 

Now when the Indians taught the colonists to do it that's where changed a little bit. They used a hand auger where the hole in the tree started from and wooden spiles. Now they made these wooden spiles out of sumac or elderberry bushes because they have a pithy inside. They would drill the inside out, whittle down one end, that end would go into the tree and the sap would flow down and into their wooden buckets. They would boil their sap in big black iron kettles and as they got thicker and thicker they would go from one kettle to another and at the end they made sugar blocks just like the Indians did and kept them in little muslin bags. Kept them in the root cellar or their attics where it was cool. 

If anybody has ever read the Little House on the Prairie books, Laura's mother asked her to go to the root cellar and bring up a brick of sugar and this is what they were talking about was maple sugar. Richard's grand folks also used the wooden buckets and the wooden spiles. They had snowshoes that they used to go out in the woods to do their tapping and their lanterns to bring down. 

Over on this wall we have one of the older sap haulers, which was drawn by a horse, and they would there's little springs on the top they would pour their sap in that would keep the twigs and the leaves out of it. And the horse would bring it down and they would boil from that. 

When Richard's folks took over they went to the metal buckets and the metal spiles. These spiles were made out of tin and cast-iron and you can see how big these and the wooden spires are. So it took a pretty big hole in the tree. Took the tree about two years to heal over or bellybutton overs what we call it. We also had very heavy tappers and we would have to carry out, plus a jug of gas, and do our tapping with those. 

Now when people think of maple syrup they often think of Vermont. Well I'm here to tell you Vermont's not the only state that makes maple syrup. If you look at my map up here I have all the states that make maple syrup and they make enough to be in the United States stat books. They go as far north as Minnesota and Iowa and as far south as Tennessee. Now all the states use different maple trees. All maple trees give sap. They all make syrup but it is going to taste a little different. So each state that you visit and you try their maple syrup it will taste a little different. Different soil, different growing season, and different trees do the different grades or their different tastes of syrup. 

We are now using our lighter, battery-operated tappers. We also have tubing instead of buckets and you might have seen some of this tubing as you came up Gurnee Road this morning. Now the light blue tubing we string tree to tree, it then runs into a larger line which we call our main lines. The main lines then run into big catch tanks that we have at every sugar bush. 

Now what a sugar bush is just a group of maple trees in different areas. Some of them are large bushes, some are very small. Depends on how many trees are in that area. The big main lines then run into big catch tanks and that's where we pick up our sap with our trucks and they go around and pick it up. We also use a different kind of spile. This is called a health tree spile. It's only 5/16ths. It gives us just as much sap as the larger taps do and it only takes our trees about six months to heal over instead of two years. 

So each generation learned a little bit better how to take care of their trees. From their Indians putting great big slices in the tree and leaving scars, down to the new health tree spiles that we use today. 

Now tubing isn't a new concept. In the early 1800s, Canada made metal tubing and spiles and which they hooked together, they had miles and miles of this, and they would put it all together, tap their trees but it didn't work very well because once the sap started to flow into the metal tubing and it froze at night like it was supposed to, it popped apart. With the plastic tubing that we use it contracts and goes back to its original size.

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