Esopus Munsee Winter Customs - Deep Snow Moon and The Story of the Celestial Bear

Friday, June 10, 2022 0
Esopus Munsee Winter Customs - Deep Snow Moon and The Story of the Celestial Bear

Esophus Munsee

Since time immemorial, the land on which historic Huguenot Street sits today was home to Esopus Munsee people and their Lenape ancestors. Long before any stone houses were built here, indigenous families lived in circular dwellings made of plant materials, primarily saplings and bark. These homes were called wigwams and looked similar to the replica that stands today on the lawn of the DuBois Fort Visitor Center.

The Esopus Munsee people spoke a Munsee dialect of the Lenape language. Lenape is one of the languages of the East Algonquin subgroup of the Algonquin language family. This map indicates some of the Indigenous territories and different languages that were spoken in what is now New York State and the surrounding region.

Efforts are being made today to preserve and teach the Lenape language.



Munsee / Munsey - "people of a stone country.". (Minassiniu, Minisink, Minsi, Moncy, Monthey, Mundook, Muncey, Munsi, Muncie).

Four groups of this division were sometimes called together (Esopus, Espachomy) : Catskill, Momekotiny, Waranawonkong, Wawarsink

Culturally, the Mansi stood apart and until the last century were often considered an independent tribe. The term appears in sources in the 18th century.

The Passamaquoddy: A People Reborn Short Documentary

Wednesday, April 27, 2022 0
The Passamaquoddy: A People Reborn Short Documentary

The Passamaquoddy

In the early 1960s the Passamaquoddy tribe was at an all time low, but they were about to begin a two decade battle with the State of Maine which would forever change themselves, their relationship between the United States Government, and all Native American tribes.

Its conclusion would bring a new wealth, and a new pride to the native peoples of Maine.

But with it came unexpected troubles and dissension which struck to the heart of what it means to be Indian.

Preceding these events, in the late 18th century, Congress created the Nonintercourse Act, declaring that any transfer of land from Indians to non-Indians had to be approved by Congress.

Between 1794 and 1833, title to most of the land of the Passamaquoddy was transferred o the state of Maine and individuals. Those transfers, encompassing two-thirds of the state of Maine, were never approved by the U.S. Congress, and were therefore illegitimate.

This was the foundation for the Maine Indian Land Claims Case of 1980. 

Before the Claims settlement, the conditions on the Maine reservations were poor. The houses were small and wooden, with little to no insulation, leaky roofs, and bare floors.

In the sixties, 85% of the houses had no toilets or plumbing.


The average annual family income is $3000, well below the national poverty level. Most members of the Passamaquoddy Tribe live on this 100 acre reservation on the Northeast coast of Maine. Here, an unemployment rate of 50% is a sign that things are getting better.

Intolerance for the tribal people and their culture was common in many areas of Maine, and over time, they grew used to the treatment. Discrimination was very regular. As a matter of fact it happened so regularly that we didn't even know that it was discrimination. One of the things about an oppressed people is they get so used to it they think it's normal. And you act a certain way accordingly, and you try to survive by saying that's the way it is.

So there was all of this going on, and the saddest part is that we went along with it because  we thought it was normal and the other thing is it was so hopeless that we thought we couldn't change it.

Indians were derided by whites, and treated with the same contemptuous nature that blacks in the South were suffering, although resident Whites blinded themselves to this. As Donald Hansen of the Kennebec Journal wrote in 1965, Maine folk can get pretty upset when a Negro in Mississippi has to move to the back of the bus and yet remain relatively indifferent when they learn that barbers refuse to cut the hair of a Passamaquoddy Indian.

Visit https://www.passamaquoddy.com


Chef Boyardee 1953 Spaghetti Dinner Kits Commercial

Sunday, April 03, 2022 0
Chef Boyardee 1953 Spaghetti Dinner Kits Commercial

Hello, may I come in?

I am Chef Boyardee. Perhaps you have seen my picture on Chef Boyardee products at you grocers?

Today I want to tell you about a wonderful dinner for three. A dinner that only costs about fifteen cents a serving. It's my own Chef Boyardee spaghetti dinner with meat sauce or mushroom sauce. It all comes in one carton. A full half pound of tender, quick cooking spaghetti, ten full ounces of rich, tasty sauce and to top it off, a whole can of simply grated cheese. A wonderful food.

So ask your grocer for Chef Boyardee spaghetti dinner with meat or mushroom sauce, won't you? And look for other Chef Boyardee's products. They're all so delicious but also nourishing, and they help keep the cost of your meals down.

Chef Boyardee products are at best grocer.

Ask for Chef Boyardee's spaghetti dinner. Only about 15 cents a serving.

Chef Boyardee

Here's a 1979 Chef Boyardee also starring Ettore Boiardi in his last appearance in Chef Boyardee commercials

Facts about Ettore Boiardi

He took a chef apprenticeship at a restaurant in Italy at the age of 11 but was mainly relegated to doing custodial tasks at the La Croce Bianca restaurant.. He later learned true restaurant skills in Paris and London prior to coming to the USA.

After his family arrived in the USA in 1914, he got a job as a cook at tony Plaza Hotel (where his brother also worked) and was eventually promoted to head chef.

He catered Woodrow Wilson's wedding banquet at the Greenbrier Resort in West Virginia.

The precursor to his idea for Chef Boyardee home meals was at his  Il Giardino d'Italia restaurant in Cleveland. He would package ingredients of pasta, cheese and his spaghetti sauce in milk bottles for restaurant patrons. From that, demand for his food "packages" became so great that, in 1928, he opened a small processing plant that soon became the home to Chef Boyardee products.




Battle of the Network Stars V - Robin Williams, William Shatner and Others - November 18th, 1978

Monday, February 28, 2022 0
Battle of the Network Stars V - Robin Williams, William Shatner and Others  -  November 18th, 1978

Battle of the Network Stars V - November 18th, 1978 

The majority of the Battle of the Network Stars competitions took place at Pepperdine University. With the exception of  Battle of the Network Stars XVIII, which took place in Ixtapa, Mexico.

Working with me this time around, a freshman at Pepperdine but the venerable statesman from the University of Southern California, my colleague on Monday Night Football, The Giffer.

I thought this was supposed to be fun? Captain Conrad's going nuts over there. He's firing up his team, it's incredible. You know, I've hosted the men's superstars on ABC and I almost have the same feeling here Howard and that is, well there's a lot of fun and there's a whole lot of happiness involved in it. They really are serious. These are really competitors. Now the captains along with Conrad, McLean Stevenson, Gabe Kaplan, they've had their teams out, secretly working out. So, we're in for a lot of fun, a lot of kicks. They all want to win.

Right you are Gif and as you can see from the past four battles, the ABC stars have won twice. CBS and NBC each have won one.

Now we're ready for the swimming competition.  That's the scene set, that Olympic sized swimming pool. Quickly the rules, 5 to each team. 2 on each team must be females. Each participant swims one lap. That's one width of the pool. 25 yards, but the anchorperson swims two widths of 50 yard. Winning team gets 100 points. Second place 75. Third place team 50. 

In lane introductions, the team of stars of NBC shows right there. Caskey Swaim. And in the number two spot, Pam Hensley, gives a little bit of luster. Then Bill Devane. Brianne Leary, who has the look of a competitor. And the anchorman is Joe Bottoms.

Then the team of stars on ABC. Leading off, Richard Hatch. The veteran of this competition, being on previously when he was in Streets of San Francisco. The number two spot for this team, Maren Jensen. Debby Boone is in the number three spot and then Robin Williams swimming in the 4th spot. The anchorman for this team is big Bob Urich. 

Now the team of stars from CBS shows. Leading off, that was Timmy Reid. Miss Charlene Tilton, number two. LeVar Burton, number three. Valerie Bertinelli is number four. The number five man is David Lettermen.

Related Links:


Soldier Huts That Housed George Washington's Continental Army at Valley Forge

Saturday, February 05, 2022 0
Soldier Huts That Housed George Washington's Continental Army at Valley Forge
This is a video by the American Battlefield Trust and they're at Valley Forge National Historical Park. Here are some of the recreated soldiers huts that George Washington's Continental Army would have lived in during the winter of 1777-1778. 

Valley Forge

We see from the outside we have a roof, we have stacked logs that have notches in them known as saddle notches here. We also have between our logs um today what is cement but at the time would have been clay, hay, straw, everything together. We have a small chimney trying to make this as much of a log cabin or a home for 12 soldiers. Yes, 12 soldiers would live in this 14 by 16 hut. 

We'll take a step inside for just a second. You can see how they would live in here on their bunks. You have a small fireplace where you would cook and you would have for heat. But 12 men would live inside of here. They would try to make it as comfortable as possible. 

Sometimes you would find women in here. There are at least 400 women who are following the army here to Valley Forge. So this would be very cramped quarters if you're a soldier in Washington's army.

More about Valley Forge:

Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight winter encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General George Washington, during the American Revolutionary War. In September 1777, Congress fled Philadelphia to escape the British capture of the city. After failing to retake Philadelphia, Washington led his 12,000-man army into winter quarters at Valley Forge, located approximately 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia. They remained there for six months, from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. At Valley Forge, the Continentals struggled to manage a disastrous supply crisis while retraining and reorganizing their units. About 1,700 to 2,000 soldiers died from disease, possibly exacerbated by malnutrition.


Patterson Maple Farms Sugar House - 2019 PCN Tour

Tuesday, February 01, 2022 0
Patterson Maple Farms Sugar House - 2019 PCN Tour
Good morning and welcome to Patterson Farms. My name is Linda Neal and I've worked here at Patterson's for 28 years now, so I've seen a lot of changes. 

Before we start going into the sugarhouse I'd like to give you a little idea of what the family is here. In the early 1920s, Grandma and Grandpa Patterson, and that would be Orin and Mabel Patterson, started here on the farm. They had a little dairy of cattle. They tapped a few sugar bushes up on top of the hill and made a little bit of syrup. And how they made their syrup was they used wooden buckets and wooden spiles. They tapped their trees with a hand auger, brought their sap down to their backyard with a horse-drawn sleigh and the sap and they boiled outside on a flat pan. 

Patterson Maple Farms

When they passed the farm down to Clifton and Alberta Patterson, they changed a little bit. They built a sugar house. They got a wood-fired evaporator, put in twenty six hundred buckets that Richard and Robert and Mary Lee had to dump twice a day. 

When it passed down to Richard that's when it really changed. We got into tubing and a lot more taps. We got up to 87,000 taps and 26 different sugar bushes. We got a new evaporator. We built a larger sugar house. 

Now we're down to our fifth generation, Terri and Terry Patterson. So we're changing every day. I've been very lucky to work with three out of the five generations. Our seasons run anywhere from the end of January into April. We need freezing nights, warmed up days to about 41 degrees, and a westerly wind. And if you don't have that three combination, the sap doesn't run very well.

There's 143 different species of maple. Now in our area here we have red, silver, black swamp, striped. But the best tree to make your syrup from is the American Sugar Maple and that's what we basically tap here. Trees have to be 30 years old before we tap them and about 10 inches in diameter. We'll put one tap in the tree. As the trees grow larger and larger we may put two or three taps in the tree. But here at Patterson's that's as far as we go. It doesn't hurt your trees to be tapped every single year. 

Mother nature knows when to turn the sap off when it's ready for the leaves to come out and if you look at this cross cut here of a sugar maple tree, you can see the old tap holes this shows you that it does not hurt your trees to be tapped every year. Putting a new hole in the tree. It just grows right on over. 

This tree was 143 years old when it had to come down after a storm and it was giving sap at about 30 years and it was still giving sap when it was cut down. 

When sap comes from a sugar maple tree it's clear like water, about two percent sugar, and a two percent sugar it takes 43.7 gallons of sap to make one gallon of syrup. So we need a lot of sap to make a lot of syrup. Now you say with so many different kinds of maple trees, how do you tell a sugar maple? Well the way I do it because it's the easiest way, I look at the leaves. And on a sugar maple leaf it has five points to it. No other maple tree does. When there's no leaves on the trees you can look at the twigs and on a sugar maple twig it grows and v shapes. No other maple tree does. Now when our guys get really good at it all they have to do is look at the outside bark. It has a very distinctive look and feel to it. 

Now the first people who made maple syrup were the Indians. And how they did it was they took a tomahawk or hatchet and they would put a great big slice in the tree, put a piece of bark under that slice and the sap would run down and into their birch buckets but they pitched on the inside to carry their sap back to either their teepees or their sugar camps out in the woods. And how they boiled is they had a hollowed-out log and they would put their sap in the hollowed-out log. Heat rocks up, drop the rocks into the sap and that's how they made their sugar and they kept it in sugar blocks just like this. This is how they kept their syrup. Now if they wanted syrup they would just scratch a little off, add water back to it and it would become syrup again. 

Now to tell whether it's sugaring season we normally look at a calendar and we know that about the end of January it's time to get ready start tapping your trees and getting ready for the next sugaring season. The Indians didn't have that and how they could tell that it was sugaring season is by the moon phases. Now in a year there's always 13 full moons and it was the third full moon of the season that they knew was a sugar moon and that's when they usually started making their maple syrup. Third full moon in this year was around the 22nd of March and that's when they would have started to make their syrup. 

How they got their calendar is by looking at the turtle and on the turtle's shell there's always 13 cylinders on the top of the shell that was the 13th full moons and the little cylinders on the outside of the turtle shell is always 28 and that was the 28 days in between each full moon. 

Now when the Indians taught the colonists to do it that's where changed a little bit. They used a hand auger where the hole in the tree started from and wooden spiles. Now they made these wooden spiles out of sumac or elderberry bushes because they have a pithy inside. They would drill the inside out, whittle down one end, that end would go into the tree and the sap would flow down and into their wooden buckets. They would boil their sap in big black iron kettles and as they got thicker and thicker they would go from one kettle to another and at the end they made sugar blocks just like the Indians did and kept them in little muslin bags. Kept them in the root cellar or their attics where it was cool. 

If anybody has ever read the Little House on the Prairie books, Laura's mother asked her to go to the root cellar and bring up a brick of sugar and this is what they were talking about was maple sugar. Richard's grand folks also used the wooden buckets and the wooden spiles. They had snowshoes that they used to go out in the woods to do their tapping and their lanterns to bring down. 

Over on this wall we have one of the older sap haulers, which was drawn by a horse, and they would there's little springs on the top they would pour their sap in that would keep the twigs and the leaves out of it. And the horse would bring it down and they would boil from that. 

When Richard's folks took over they went to the metal buckets and the metal spiles. These spiles were made out of tin and cast-iron and you can see how big these and the wooden spires are. So it took a pretty big hole in the tree. Took the tree about two years to heal over or bellybutton overs what we call it. We also had very heavy tappers and we would have to carry out, plus a jug of gas, and do our tapping with those. 

Now when people think of maple syrup they often think of Vermont. Well I'm here to tell you Vermont's not the only state that makes maple syrup. If you look at my map up here I have all the states that make maple syrup and they make enough to be in the United States stat books. They go as far north as Minnesota and Iowa and as far south as Tennessee. Now all the states use different maple trees. All maple trees give sap. They all make syrup but it is going to taste a little different. So each state that you visit and you try their maple syrup it will taste a little different. Different soil, different growing season, and different trees do the different grades or their different tastes of syrup. 

We are now using our lighter, battery-operated tappers. We also have tubing instead of buckets and you might have seen some of this tubing as you came up Gurnee Road this morning. Now the light blue tubing we string tree to tree, it then runs into a larger line which we call our main lines. The main lines then run into big catch tanks that we have at every sugar bush. 

Now what a sugar bush is just a group of maple trees in different areas. Some of them are large bushes, some are very small. Depends on how many trees are in that area. The big main lines then run into big catch tanks and that's where we pick up our sap with our trucks and they go around and pick it up. We also use a different kind of spile. This is called a health tree spile. It's only 5/16ths. It gives us just as much sap as the larger taps do and it only takes our trees about six months to heal over instead of two years. 

So each generation learned a little bit better how to take care of their trees. From their Indians putting great big slices in the tree and leaving scars, down to the new health tree spiles that we use today. 

Now tubing isn't a new concept. In the early 1800s, Canada made metal tubing and spiles and which they hooked together, they had miles and miles of this, and they would put it all together, tap their trees but it didn't work very well because once the sap started to flow into the metal tubing and it froze at night like it was supposed to, it popped apart. With the plastic tubing that we use it contracts and goes back to its original size.

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Quanah Parker, Last Chief of the Comanches

Friday, January 21, 2022 0
Quanah Parker,  Last Chief of the Comanches
For three centuries the Comanches ruled as lords of the Southern Plains. With the coming of white settlers and the might of the US Army, the land was been rested from its Indian masters. The Comanches resented this appropriation of their ancestral home and say only one recourse, war. 

In 1836, during a Comanche raid on Fort Parker, Texas, nine-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker was captured. She grew up among the Comanches, whom she learned to love dearly. Ultimately, she married famed Comanche chief Peta Nocona for whom she bore three children.

Who was Quanah Parker?

Quanah was born to the couple in 1845 and was the only one of the three children to survive. Sharp of mind and an intrepid warrior, Quanah emerged as a vigorous and enlightened protector of Comanche interest.

Quanah led Cheyennes, Arapahos, Comanches, Kiowas, and Apaches in their last great surge against white encroachment known as Battle of Adobe Walls. A military strategist of the first order, he became one of the most feared Indians on the Southern Plains. But the white man was superior in weapons and numbers. The day came when Quanah knew that further resistance would only lead to annihilation of the Comanches. He counts this people to lay down their arms and to take the white men's rules.

On June 2nd, 1875, Quanah and his followers surrendered at Fort Sill. By an ironic twist of fate it was Quanah who led the Comanches in their final struggle against the encroachment of his mother's own people, the whites. And once the fighting was over it was he as last chief of the Comanches who would lead them up from the bitter ashes of defeat to walk the white man's road. Quanah dedicate himself to the strenuous task of guiding the Comanches into civilization. Courageous and strong-willed, he was also a natural diplomat. Traveling numerous times to Washington DC to represent the Comanches, he was a familiar figure in Congress. He became a successful farmer, a rancher, and a major stockholder in the Quanah, Acme & Pacific Railway. 

He had vital interest in educating the young people and became president of his local school board in 1905. On a road in Theodore Roosevelt inaugural parade, in a special report to the president it was stated of Quanah, "if ever nature stamped a man with the seal of headship, she did it in his case. Quanah would have been a leader and a governor in any circle where fate may have cast him." 

Where is Quanah Parker buried?

On December 4, 1910, Quanah had his mother's remains exhumed and reburied near his home where, as he said, "I might lie beside her". At Quanah's request, Congress erected a monument at her gravesite. 

Three months after her reburial, Chief Quanah died on February 23, 1911. Quanah, who was responsible for the Comanche's transition onto the white man's road and who perhaps did more than any other man to reconcile these two great races was mourned by Whites and Indians alike. Approximately 1,500 people formed a funeral procession over two miles long. 

Although his remarkable adaptation to white ways brought him honor and wealth, he never did forsake his Comanche heritage. He loved his culture, he was proud of it and strove to preserve it. When he was buried beside his white mother, he was in the full regalia of a Comanche chief.

Quanah had seven Comanche wives and begat 24 children. Every year, the descendants of Quanah and the Parker relatives of Texas gather to honor the memory of Cynthia Ann and a remarkable son, Quanah Parker, Last Chief of the Comanches.

1800's Covered Wagon Tracks Still Exist - Oregon Trail Ruts

Thursday, January 13, 2022 0
1800's Covered Wagon Tracks Still Exist - Oregon Trail Ruts
Traveling through Wyoming now. Not stopping too many places but I wanted to stop here and show you this. This is a very interesting historical place. Where during the mid-1800s an estimated 500,000 people crossed this area on the famous Oregon Trail. They went through this sandstone, this rock. Those thousands of covered wagons crossed this area. They crossed over and eventually in through this sandstone rock, they created huge ruts. Some of the ruts are as deep as four feet.

Oregon Trail Ruts - Guernsey, Wyoming


I mean this is so interesting to me. This sandstone is a lot softer than other types of rock so those wagon wheels, slowly over the course of decades, cut into this. 

The Oregon Trail was about two thousand miles long and it took anywhere from four to six months for these pioneers, people in search of a better life out West, to cross and lots of danger lots of hardship. Lots of accidents and deaths. They were full on committed to making it out West.

So during the mid-1800s more than 500,000 pioneers journeyed West right through this area and the Oregon Trail was just a rocky, horrible, rocky rutted trail. It was never any nicer than that. The trail began in Missouri, crossing the plains before entering into here into Wyoming, along the North Platte River.

As they continued on the trail, travel became even more difficult and once they reached the Wyoming area, the terrain changed from wide open plains to rugged landscape typical of what's out here.

There's a plaque here that says the Oregon Trail was 2,000 miles and it's a tribute to the human spirit. The people from all walks of life sold most of their possessions, piled what was left in a wagon and journeyed West in search of a better life. Thousands of travelers struggled through this winding, rocky terrain before making camp just west of this point. Evidence of their passage is clearly visible at the crest of this hill where deep ruts cut by the wheels of countless wagons. Thousands of wagons are preserved in the soft sandstone.

Zimmerman's Covered Bridge - Pennsylvania's Covered Bridges

Wednesday, January 05, 2022 0
Zimmerman's Covered Bridge - Pennsylvania's Covered Bridges
So greetings from Pennsylvania once again and today we're up here in Schuylkill County and we've got a covered bridge behind us. 

So, I'm starting one of my new series on the different covered bridges here in Pennsylvania and we're going to start here at the Zimmerman covered bridge

So, this idea has been in my head for quite some time to do all the covered bridges here in Pennsylvania. I have filmed some videos on cover bridges already but never turned into like a series. Never made it a concerted effort to get to all of them. There are quite a few left here in Pennsylvania. Some counties have none. Like Lebanon County, which is not too far from here, has no covered bridges. Here in Schuylkill County there's just two. But down in Lancaster County there's a whole ton of them. So it varies from county to county.

Zimmerman Covered Bridge

We'll talk a little bit just why what the purpose of a covered bridge is and then we'll take a look at this one here, the Zimmerman covered bridge. I'll tell you a little bit of history about it oh yeah we're going to talk about the architecture. You know, as I make these videos I learn stuff too because I'm studying all these bridges. They're made different ways, different architecture. Like this one is called a Burr Truss or Burr Arch Truss and we'll go inside.

But let me tell you where I'm at. First, this is Covered Bridge Road appropriately. Just across the bridge is Route 895. We're not too far from the town of Rock. But if you go west it'll take you to Pine Grove. So that's kind of where we are and because we'll walk through the bridge. There's a little trail down below we can get a view of the bridge from down below too.

So what's the purpose? Why have a covered bridge? What's the purpose of that? Why not just have a regular open bridge like they do today these days? 

I want to mention what the purpose of covered bridges is. Obviously the bridge is there to cover like a creek or stream or the body of water. I've heard different reasons why there's sides to them. Sometimes the sides, like these go back you know to the 1800s. The sides were on the bridges so the horses couldn't see over the edge and be scared or something like that. I heard that explained once but the reason they're covered is because they're made of wood, because they have a roof and roofing materials to prevent the wood from getting wet.

Wooden bridges that were uncovered only lasted about 20 years. Obviously because the wood would rot. But, if you put a cover on it, a roof like what's on these covered bridges, they could last 100 years or so. So that's why it's one of the main reasons why they're covered. Same with your house. You know if your house didn't have a roof it wouldn't last that long. But once you have a good solid roof on top of your house it can last you know hundreds of years. So, that's why they're covered. 

Alright, so let's go take a walk through. Because I think at the end of this video we'll actually drive through too. Yeah, so depending on what website you read, I've heard different ages for Zimmerman's covered bridge. 1875 or 1880. I'm gonna go with 1875. That's what I heard the most. See the arch everybody mentioned? The name of that is a Burr Arch Truss. It's called that because a man named Theodore Burr patented that design I think in 1817. And the truss refers to these posts. This is called a king post truss. It's got the one big post and the two angles. That's a king post right there. One up in the two angled ones and it's there's multiple ones of those it's a multiple king post truss and then this is the burr the burr arch. So Burr Arch Truss design is what this is.

This bridge is about 50 feet long too. I think it was redone a bit in 1996. They lifted it off its abutments and kind of did some work on it, refurbished it a bit, and there's looking at it from this way. One of the shorter cover bridges I've seen because the second one here that's in Schuylkill County, which is actually just down the road, maybe several miles, the Rock Covered Bridge that one's even shorter I believe.

Effigy Mounds National Monument: Sacred Lands & Waters

Sunday, January 02, 2022 0
Effigy Mounds National Monument: Sacred Lands & Waters
Lakota cultural resource manager Albert Lebeau is our guide to this exploration of Effigy Mounds National Monument in Iowa.

Effigy Mounds National Monument

I feel, when you come to Effigy Mounds, you feel it. A lot of people don't understand it but there is something you feel. There is a sacredness here. Effigy Mounds National Monument is a cemetery. We figured about 90% of the mounds are probably burial mounds or contain human remains of some sort.

My name is Albert Lebeau. I am the Cultural Resource Manager for Effigy Mounds National Monument.

There's different mounds being built throughout the country. We have Hopewellian Mounds, which are further east. We have Mississippian mounds, which are east and south of here. And then, we have our mounds, the Effigy Mounds.

The Effigy Mounds in southern Wisconsin is unique in whereas we have a lot of effigies.

What's right behind me is a mound that's known as "Little Bear." And the reason he's called Little Bear is because there's a bigger Bear not too far from where we're at right now. So he's the Little Bear.

Basically all "effigies" means is that they're made to look like something. As an archeologist, I can't say for sure that this is a bear. I can say that it resembles a terrestrial land animal that has four legs and it's being represented by this particular effigy.

In our south unit we have our jewel, which we call the "Marching Bears." Marching Bears is a very special place and when you go up there, you'll feel it. It is a very special place.

We know that this area has been used and continues to be used by tribal folks, through time immemorial. The Native people who continue to use this, it's their site and they're able, you know, I'm just managing it, I'm just making sure that they can still use it, they still have access to it, and making sure that no other harm has been done to it.

Stories from different tribes throughout the country, refer back to the Mississippi River. I feel a connection here, but the connection is more of a distant connection. Because, my ancestors, my recent ancestors, used scaffold and bundle burials. We didn't build mounds. So, this whole area, even known to the Lakotas, who where a Plains tribe, knew about this place, and knew that we can't fight here.

The Ho-Chunk say the same thing, Sauk and Fox, the Ioway, the Missouria. All these different tribal groups all say the exact same thing. That this place was a neutral zone to meet and pray.


More Information can be found at: https://www.nps.gov/efmo/index.htm and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effigy_Mounds_National_Monument

Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce - A Unique Evergreen Tree

Thursday, July 15, 2021 0
Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce - A Unique Evergreen Tree

Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce

If you're interested in adding to the look of your yard, with minimal effort, then a Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce is what you're looking for.

Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce trees are excellent for patios. They're great for anywhere in your yard. Especially where you'd enjoy having a decorative tree with a spiral shape. Which is especially great for those who enjoy decorating their yard during Christmas. When needed, trimming back new growth will help the tree keep its unique spiral shape. All around, the tree is excellent for any yard where you want decorative, accent or tree garden friendly trees.

Most of the time your Dwarf Alberta Spruce tree will not need watering. It will need watering during times of drought though. The tree grows best in a well-drained, but not dry, soil. When grown as a shrub they will require watering more often up to two or a few times per week depending on the weather and temperature.

As for fertilizing, your tree(s) should be fertilized with a fertilizer like Miracle Gro every three weeks between April and August. Dwarf Alberta Spruces will typically grow between five and seven feet in height and have a spread of two to three feet. Due to its size, they can also be grown in a container of appropriate size that will have room for its roots at maturity.

Its low height makes it also suitable for growing in areas of your yard where other trees would be too close to power lines. In good soil and under other ideal conditions, your Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce tree can live for at least fifty years and be enjoyable for generations of your family or any future property owners.

Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce Winter Care

The Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce is a popular ornamental tree that is commonly grown for its unique shape and texture. It is a hardy evergreen tree that can withstand cold temperatures and harsh winter conditions. However, proper care is still necessary to ensure that the tree survives and remains healthy during the winter season.

Here are some tips for winter care of Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce:

Watering: Make sure the tree is well-watered before the ground freezes. This will help it retain moisture during the winter months. However, avoid overwatering as this can cause the roots to rot.

Mulching: Apply a layer of mulch around the base of the tree. This will help to insulate the roots and protect them from freezing temperatures.

Protection from wind and snow: The tree's branches are susceptible to damage from heavy snow or strong winds. To protect it, wrap the tree in burlap or a protective cover.

Avoid using de-icing salt: Salt can be harmful to the tree, so avoid using de-icing salt near the tree. If possible, use sand instead.

Pruning: Prune the tree in the fall to remove any dead or damaged branches. This will help to promote new growth in the spring.

By following these tips, you can help your Spiral Dwarf Alberta Spruce survive and thrive during the winter months.

How To: Prune A Spiral Topiary

A Vehicleless Town in North Carolina and Wolf Conservation at the El Paso Zoo

Thursday, February 11, 2021 0
A Vehicleless Town in North Carolina and Wolf Conservation at the El Paso Zoo

A North Carolina town where the main mode of transportation isn't cars, but horses
The small town of Love Valley in North Carolina is a tourist spot that only permits horses and horse carriages within the town limits. The "town" was founded in the 1960s with the idea in mind of providing a place where people could take a trip back into history. The town consists of 2,000 acres open to horse riding, camping and other attractions and events.


Sitting in the foothills of the Brushy Mountains in NC, this place is popular for horse lovers. All guests need to leave their cars in the designated parking sports. Upon entering, they can only ride carriages and horses downtown.


Mexican Gray Wolves sent from the Phoenix Zoo to the El Paso Zoo to help preserve their species

Two adults wolves and three wolf pups were sent to the zoo for the purpose of future breeding and increasing genetic diversity amongst the wolves.

The five wolves transferred to Texas were placed in quarantine at the El Paso Zoo until the first week of February. Animal curator John Kiseda said he was hopeful they will have adjusted to their surroundings by the time the zoo reopens following a pandemic closure.

Katelyn Nicole Davis ? Forever Missed